How the V-7-Legend arose - The Nazi Saucers

How the V-7-Legend arose

When in the summer 1947 flying saucers [or flying discs] appeared in the skies of America, it caused consternation among the high ranks of the military. There were the earnest concerns over new Soviet secret weapons because after World War Two the western allies had snatched for themselves, just as the Soviets, all airplane and rocket designs present in the development stage out of Germany in order to exploit them, far behind the front for themselves. Keep in mind also that, at the same time, the airplanes designers Nemek/Stein/Burkland-Hart around 1944 had already converted a monoplane and with a kind of "discus-shaped wing" [Rückenschild] built an aircraft called "Fliegender Teller" [Flying Plate] as reported in "Der Flieger", Vol 1 of 1944, or that the Italian engineer Guido Tallai had already in 1932 constructed a flight machine [Diri-Disc Blimp] that was looked like a union between controllable air ship and airplane. It consisted of a 95 meter long gas filled circular fuselage in the form of the popular Discus of antiquity, on whose front part the wings rested. The machine was operated with three motors and three propellers.

The thought therefore existed strongly that in "Old Germany" someone could have accomplished something that now accounted for the saucer sightings across the "‘large pond". Independently therefrom, the US navy already had the Flying Pancake, the XF-5U project, which had been ended in the mean time however. Actually Captain Edward J. Ruppelt, first commander of "Operation Blue Book", later found among his documents, a handwritten memo from a general inquiring, whether the navy had actually ended its pancake project, because the first saucer descriptions sounded suspiciously like this machine. 

As it were, since autumn 1946 "Ghost Rockets in Scandinavia" rumors were circulating, that the Soviets perhaps had seized advanced devices from the Nazis, of which the Americans had yet no idea. This opaque option led to unquiet sleep for many a senior Pentagon staffers. The US secret services stationed in Germany were alerted to begin investigations to assess how far the "other side" already was in the development of newly experimental airplanes. There was the possibility that the Soviets were using some aerodynamic concepts, by means of which the saucers could possible become reality and fly. Questions arose in these unsteady times, after the Flying Saucer stories started, that it was possible they were constructions of German engineers of the Nazi era time and the current appearances could be further postwar developments. Actually specialists of the early German Aerospace-industry in the zone taken in by the Soviets were "turned around" immediately in order to gut the new technologies and to make them accessible to the red army. Among them was the developer of the Stuka [Ju-87] from Berlin, who later built the MIG 13 and MIG 15 for Moscow. Were flying saucers therefore secret weapons? For long time it seemed so, and the idea was supported not only nationally but also internationally. 

Jan Aldrich for his "Project 1947" found a highly interesting document which was classified originally as secret. On 10 November 1947, the HQ of the 6th region of the 970th Counter Intelligence Corps Detachment composed a memorandum on the subject of the "flying saucers" to the command-officers in Bayreuth, Nuremberg, Würzburg, Bamberg and the regional "Technical Specialists" there. Responsible Special Agent was William E. Lahned jr of the CIC Abteilung "Operations". It explained that the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field in the mean time had been able to gather considerable material over the "appearance, description and functional methods of an object by the name of flying saucer". Thereupon the opinion was formed that at least some type of object by the name of "flying saucer" existed and different wind canal models were constructed at that time in order to see how and whether these things could actually fly. It was also emphasized that there were considerations what type of flight objects were planned, constructed and experimentally tested during the time of the Third Reich of Nazi Germany, Therefore the command was issued that the CIC-HQ of the European Command search for German airplane-specialists and test pilots, who knew of these matters. Lahned issued the command to the above indicated regional departments that they would have to search for corresponding German personnel, however in totally discrete manner. In case of success, an immediate reply should result.

Before certain circles have cause for jubilation, here is an expansion of what was intended. On 16 December 1947, HQ of the Berlin command "Military Government for Germany" office, department "Abteilung Luftwaffen Geheimdienst S-2", spelled out in a command to all heads of the US secret services of the European command, distribution over the corresponding office in Frankfurt, the exact goal which takes the air out of all phantasies about the "Nazis' Flugscheibe". The concern was for information on the "Nurflügler" of the brothers Reimar and Walter Horten, who were at large in Bavaria and who were , by command of the USA­FE HQ in Wiesbaden, to be apprehended and "evacuated" to the US under Operation Paperclip. Paperclip was the secret operation between the US government and the Vatican, by which important Nazis were secretly transported to the US to be of service to the American government.

A model of the Horten IX-Nurflügler had been discovered in the aerodynamic trial institute in Göttingen by the Americans. Therefore they assumed now that the crescent moon or scythe-shaped described "flying saucer" of those days were possibly a conversion of the Horten machines. The Nurflügel machines had a far smaller radar cross section than conventional airplane designs - perhaps such machines, misidentified as flying saucers, could have penetrated American airspace --- manned by Soviets! In any case this idea was pursued.

Since Göring in January 1945 arranged the series building of the Horten Nurflügler by the Gothaer car factory in Thuringia and the the resident technical chief, a man by the name of Dr. Berthold, was to have initiated some further developments of his own, it was problematic after the occupation in May of Gotha by American troops to learn anything, because at first all documents were hidden from the Americans. Only in the course of the summer 1945 did the Americans learn something of the Nurflügler of the Hortens.

The American firm Northrop tried everything to take up this revolutionary airplane-design once again, with had had its problems in the USA. Northrop himself put pressure on the American military in order to bring the Horten into the US so that they could transform the Nurflügler into a technically perfect product, which is perhaps able to solve the saucer-riddle - perhaps the secret of the Delta-Flügler of the Hortens was the large unknown element in the game. And, of course, to perhaps make his own decisive progress in the development of the Nurflüglers.

The CIC, as the criminal police of the American military forces, had received information according to which one of the Horten brothers supposedly had contact with Soviet representatives of the Russian Air Force. This became suspect because the brothers had refused to collaborate with British authorities! The CIC feared now that the principle of the Nurflüglers was already familiar to the Soviets and that they had Independently developed it further. The problem was that after the collapse the workers of the Gothaer car-factory had scattered in all directions and the Americans were faced with the large uncertainty whether the Soviets already knew about the Nurflügler of the Horten pattern since 1945 and therefore had the time for this. Because the Nurflügler principle promised a revolution in the aircraft construction, this was a certain option to explaining the flying saucers. At this time, frantic searches were on for Fräulein Sabina von der Gröben, former secretary of Luftwaffe General Ernst Udet, and for Günter Heinrich of the "Büro für Forschung beim Oberkommando der Luftwaffe" [office for research for the command of the Air Force] in Berlin in order to receive information about the former state of things. What no one on the American side apparently was aware of at this time, was the decisive circumstance that the Horten machines of the type Nurflügler were no revolutionary High-speed airplanes, but rather are derived from the area of primitive gliders, and therefore in no way corresponding with the capacities, which were claimed in the homeland of the flying saucers reported by Kenneth Arnold and others.

[For historians: The nozzle drives Northrop YB-49 Wing-only-airplane [Nurflügler] series was finally terminated after the fatal crash of Captain Glen W. Edwards [Muroc Army Air Field was renamed Edwards AFB in his honour] on 5 June 1948 and all remaining machines scrapped].

Based on a FOI inquiry of 13 March 1998, Ralf Härtel received from the US Army department two letters, written by Mr. Heinz-Adalbert Ahuis of Osnabrück and Dr. Traugott Kelterborn of Herne. These letters were submitted to the US government immediately at the start of the first German newspaper articles about the remarkable flying disks in July 1947. In both cases, these handicraft enthusiasts and inventors wanted to offer their capabilities and knowledge to the American army to immediately construct such objects themselves in America. Obviously no one not really was interested, in any case no dossiers emerged based on these letters.

Nevertheless it shows how the "disc" idea circulated in those days, developing its own dynamics and finally creating the concept of the "Nazi Flugscheibe" [flying disc]. This concept was then propagated ever more intensively the more one heard of flying saucers and the search for an explanation.

Nevertheless, it is interesting that on 21 January 1948 in a document stamped "Secret" of the Department of the Army and/or its "Intelligence Divison" with the subject "unorthodox airplane", it was pointed out that Russia at the Gotha plant had seized documentation about the Nurflügler of the Hortens, and that there are indications that the Russians now wanted to construct a fleet of 1,800 Horten Nurflügler, type V1-II "where the Russian version was now jet powered".

For this reason "Special Instructions" were issued to all news gathering offices: The search was for information which is sought in and outside of the USSR about the progress of endeavors, with special emphasis on concrete names and addresses. So it is also hardly remarkable that the newly-founded secret service, the CIA, documented newspapers report on "unorthodox airplanes, military type". This was all caused by the lack of reliable information on the actual situation in sealed off Eastern Europe – whereby the frequently cited doctrine played a role - according to which the Communists are Satan’s are army on earth.

The Soviets had as an advantage on their side; their troop strength and geographic location in spite of American atom bomb and economic prosperity weighed more. Harry Truman depended on a psychological war leadership in Europe, aimed at USSR and its satellite countries. For this Nazis and collaborators were used within the framework of US secret service programs, which, as a so called "Blow-Back" resulted in unexpected effects in the American homeland as a consequence. For example, falsified newspaper reports in Europe were brought into circulation which later appeared in the USA as facts reports, confusing the citizenry. And in the US itself? The ATIC sent agents across the country in order to learn more of the German airplane scientists and rockets scientists, secretly accommodated there in the meantime via Project Paperclip, about the corresponding state of their Nazi work. During this time, the saucer-reports flooded further throughout America. Finally the ATIC, with the aid of aerodynamic specialists from the Wright Field Aircraft Laboratory assessed that the German technology had been in no way able to introduce any flying crafts whose further development corresponded to the parameters of the saucer.

The saga of the V7-Flugscheibe is shattered by reality, but.....

All signs seem to show that the myth of the German "Kreisflügler" took its exit here and then completely went its own way.

A series published November 1950 in "Die Welt" entitled Observers from Space? The Riddle Remains Unsolved by Gerald Heard of England points out that the entire story apparently has inspired handicraft enthusiasts, inventors and thinkers to make presentations and drafts of flying saucer - flight machines and space machines. This are not surprising – because, between the bronze disks of the Greek athletes and the plastic Frisbee disks with which young people play at the beach today, for 2,500 years the enthusiasm for these flying disks never wavered.

Since Leonardo da Vinci many airplane manufacturers carried out attempts with flying discs that did not, however, pass the model stage. Different models emerged in the years before the First World War. The "Flyer" of Walther Huth [Germany, 1912] and the Lee-Richards Annular Monoplane [UK, 1913] can be mentioned.

In the Thirties, Jonathan E. Caldwell, former carpenter and airplane manufacturer, established the Gray Goose Corp. in Maryland, USA. The intention of his one-man company was to construct, with the exception of a conventional wing, a conventional airplane. The wing was to be mounted with strivings above the hull. It had the form of a perfect disk with a covered wooden skeleton. The product looked like an Autogyro with a stationary disk. Caldwell expected a high speed machine with good short start characteristics. The project did not lead however to success, only to the personal ruin of the inventor. Nevertheless, shortly after the saucer-fever-time broken out in the USA, there was a frantic search for an earthly origin of the objects and rediscovery of Caldwell's creations in a decayed barn. At the threshold of a new epoch of aviation and of the impending departure for the stars, all seemed suddenly possible in the economy miracle country of the United States of America. 

The flying saucer as a vehicle of the future?

Handicraft enthusiasts, thinkers and inventors had always in the past put their thoughts to the overcoming of gravity by means of artificial flight devices.The technical challenge was to the airplane-designer break through boundaries and to revolutionize aviation by means of novel aerodynamic design. An enticing thought and pure temptation for aviation-enthusiasts. Fantasy at least, in any case, burst all mortal restraints, and ideas as well as dreams went on cosmic gliding flights... even up to various patent registrations in many parts of the world.

Therewith begins the legend of the so-called "Nazi-saucer" that is supposed to have been reconstructed by the Americans and Soviets or as Hitler’s last "Geheimwaffe" [secret weapon] with which he fled into the icy regions of Antarctica in order to direct by means of the secretly invested Gold Treasures of the Third Reich the New World Order. But this is another story of entirely different people, with entirely other political ideologies and goals, of Secret Societies delusions and Conspiracy paranoia.

In any case there were actually aerodynamic tests and attempts with discoid flight models because the fantastic gliding characteristics of the Discus immediately struck the eye.

No wonder therefore in light of the phenomenal advances in aviation technology and developments in rocket motors and jet propulsion, with the anticipation of manned rocket flight, in these rosy times the flying saucer seemed like a replacement for the family car. Actually there were amateur inventors constructing hybrid-vehicles, that served first of all as an automobile but could be reconfigured with landing gear for the runway.

There were enough fantastic ideas enough, but they were always accompanied by cold disillusionment. That is why one only finds them in the annals of aviation history of bizarre designs. On 11 November 1950 some UP graphics were used that showed a flying saucer-disc before a space background, represented by the earth and the moon, in the standard comparison to a person and a little green man cartoon figure, a being with an oxygen bottle on his back and a helmet with antennas on his head. The caption read "This is no 'flying saucer', but rather the imaginary product of the American engineer Alex Tremulis of Chicago, who inspired by the many sensational reports in his own manner seeks to realize an old dream of humanity, to cross the reaches of outer space. He maintains: 'I could with my own designs construct a model that flies'.

In a news flash from the year 1946, the "Daily Telegraph" of London on 8 August 1946 published the article of a "diplomatic correspondent":

Russians making arms in Germany: Berlin disclosure of 3 month’s work. V--weapons, aircraft engines, radar. Atom research reported in Saxony.

In the Berliner factories of Siemens and Telefunken material for V-weapons was produced. Deliveries came from the Niedersachsen-Werke in Wolfsleben und the Klein Bodungen-Fabrik. In the Krupps plant in Magdeburg high caliber firearms were produced. The large plant of the Leuna Werken near Merseburg, Saxony, produced special airplane fuels as well as jet-engines, If only in small quantities, fire control devices, depth regulators for torpedos and U-Boat-turbines were built the Firma Kreisel and in another plant in Köpenick, south west of Berlin. Further U-Boat parts were manufactured by the R. Wolf Werke in Magdeburg-Buckau, the Brüder Knie Werke in Dresden and the Askania Werke in the Russian sector of Berlin. 280 airplane-motors alone were produced monthly during this time by the Junkers Werke in Dessau. Long range radar parts were delivered to the Russians by the Zeiss-Werke in Jena.

For these secret productions, the Russians used a large number of painstakingly chosen German technicians and engineers, who were furnished with extra food rations and could be paid out of special Russian funds. The Russian administrations had posted proclamations in the Thuringian newspapers, in which they called upon all airplane-technicians, -developers, -construction draftsmen and -pilots, to report themselves the authorities. The Askania Werke in Berlin received a major order for the production of radar apparatus. Yet the use of German weapons factories for weapons productions in Germany is especially forbidden by the Potsdam agreement under clause A3(b) and clause B11 of 2 August 1945. Neither Germans nor any garrison power was allowed to produce any war device or ammunition on German soil. After all, Germany in its entirety had been declared a demilitarized zone after the war, contractually agreed to by the involved victor powers.

Consequently London received proofs according to which a large number of German war weapons factories in the occupied Soviet zone were used by the Russians to produce a variety of war weapons for themselves. This clearly violated the Potsdam agreement. According to the source in the British government, in the last three months the production of V-weapons components, long range radar apparatus, fire control equipment for the navy, torpedo-mechanisms and U-Boat-machinery as well as airplane-motors, was carried out. Moreover there were indications that atomic research was carried out in the Saxon Leuna area. The personnel used for this consisted almost entirely of Germans.

Many German aircraft firms existed and contributed to the advancement of aircraft technology.

Most of them are gone, having been dismantled and stolen by the "Liberators" who enriched themselves to a heretofore unknown degree by stealing every patent, machine tool as well as all the production equipment they could lay their hands on.

To top it all off, the Russians [and others] kidnapped entire engineering teams, designers and scientists, working them to death on starvation rations. In the year 2001 there are still some 1.5 million German slaves missing in the steppes of Russia.

Today there is no German aircraft industry. Names such as Dornier, Heinkel, Messerschmidt, Junkers, Henschel and heaven-knows how many others aren't even a dim memory with today's young Germans

You mention air craft and they say "Boeing", not even being dimly aware of the fact, that Boeing is a company founded by German immigrants. The name can still be found in the Stuttgart region.

On the trail of the flying saucers... So read the UP message out of Washington in the "Heidelberg Rhein-Neckar Zeitung" of 23 August 1949. With this, probably for the first time, the saucer rumors became real for the Germans – printed in black and white. Here is the historic text:

In the last years, the "flying saucers" played a large role with the American press and public. Flat disks had been observed again and again in the sky and had given occasion to fantastic rumors. An investigative delegation has now found a trace that could uncover the secret. In an old tool barn, two strange looking apparatuses were discovered, that resemble giant saucers. They are equipped at the hull with a wheel and a propeller. A certain Jonathan Caldwell had constructed these, now rather rusted, apparatuses before the war. Caldwell can no longer be found. In the vicinity of the barn, however, lives a mechanic who had helped Caldwell in the building of these apparatuses, and now confirmed to the police that one of the apparatuses had flown once. Air force specialists, however, refute that these instruments could represent the "Flying Saucers" They did search for the whereabouts of Caldwell since he could have developed the "monsters" further and constructed the "flying saucers". Until they came upon this -perhaps correct- trace, the air force had engaged in years of investigations.

The flying saucer is old ….read the AP teletype from Rome and on 27 March 1950 the "Neue Presse" reported:

The Italian scientist Giuseppe Belluzzo, an expert in the field of rocket and artillery building, declared in the "Giornale d' Italia", Flying Saucers had already been developed in Germany and Italy in 1942. They represented nothing supernatural and also did not come from Mars, but rather had been developed solely under rational application of the latest technical knowledge. Presently they would probably be shot down by any one of the great power for study purposes. The start could be similar to a torpedo launch, Naphta and Oxygen could serve as a propellant. Professor Belluzzo was Minister of Economy under Mussolini for a time.

In the section 'Luftfahrt' [Aviation] on 30 March 1950 "Der Spiegel" reported:

Saucers – They Do Fly

It is solely a matter of false interpretations of ordinary air crafts, combined with a mild form of mass hysteria and premature April fool jokes.

The routine "Calming-Denial" of the US defense ministry was not able to prevent, however, that the reports of the appearances of "flying saucers" swelled into an avalanche by the end of March. From Uruguay to Turkey, from Mexico to Austria the epidemic of the flying disks ruled. As the curve of the almost three-year saucer-fever reached its highpoint, the first "inventors" announced themselves.

So the Italian scientist, Giuseppe Belluzzo, turbine-engineer, expert for rocket and artillery building and Minister of Economy under Mussolini. "I, myself, drew up the plans," he declared, "The diameter of the rotating light metal disk was ten meters. As a fuel, a mixture of compressed Oxygen and Naphta, like in jet airplanes, was used. The compressed gas streamed out of two opposed tubes attached to the disk, the apparatus was put into rotating motion and moved through the air. Hitler and Mussolini, already in 1942 , had tests with 'flying saucers' carrying long range guns, carried out".

"Unfortunately", said Belluzzo with regret, "the plans were lost during Mussolini’s flight to northern Italy. Presently they would probably be shot down by 'any great power for study purposes'.

In north Germany, Hans-Joachim Brux, a 27 year old handicraft enthusiast, claimed that near war’s end in the Junkers Ausweichwerk Brandis near Leipzig, claimed to have seen trial airplanes in plate form called "Fliegender Bierdeckel" [Flying Beer Coaster] or "Blattlaus" [Aphid]. For the photo reporter of the "Weser Courier", Brux even threw his latest miniature model into the air in the cow stable.

In Phillipeville, Algeria, the French government employee Francois Martial announced the model of a "Super-Saucer".

"My super-saucer has a diameter of 70 meters and can convey 35 passengers. As a drive, five motors are planned." With that, Martial wants to lead the counter evidence to all saucer denials.

The American defense ministry had to publish them since 24 June 1947 at regular intervals.

On that day, businessman Kenneth Arnold from Boise, Idaho, on a flight over Mount Rainier in Washington for the first time observed nine saucer-like objects. “They flew perfectly silently in formation, similar to the tail of a kite. Their speed was approximately 2000 kilometers an hour," said Arnold. "I can hardly believe it, but I saw them". The newspapers circulated the story. Scientists took position: "Nonsense, those are spots before the eyes."

A short while later, fifteen people in Seattle claimed to have seen the "flying saucers". Two sheriffs in Portland observed 20 "Flying Saucers" that flew “like the devil", in single file westward.  

Similar observations were reported in almost all US states and in Canada. Aviation experts put the saucer season down to a "mass hysteria", and the British press made comparisons with the Loch Ness Monster sightings. 

Some weeks passed, then E. J. Smith and Ralph Stevens, two experienced Flight Captains with United Airlines deposed under oath: On scheduled flight 105 from Boise to Portland they had sighted five "remarkable objects". “They flew with great speed. Their tops appeared to be ridged their bottoms smooth".

The scientists took other possibilities into consideration: Reflection of sunlight, meteor crystals, ice crystals, hailstones; since observatories were unable to report any unusual sky appearances, and no foreign objects had been sighted on the radar screen of the US defense belt. Weeks passed, new flying saucers came. Small children saw small saucers. A prospector in the Cascade Mountains observed six flying disks. "The needle of my compass danced like wild". 

The saucer delirium settled in government offices. The US Airforce launched "Project Saucer". Air force specialists were to collect all details of observation of "Unknown Flying Phenomena". They were kept busy. The saucers flew relentlessly. In January 1948 an object was seen over the US Airbase Godman near Fort Knox, Kentucky "that looked like a funnel with red light coming out the top".” Three fighter planes took up the pursuit. Captain Thomas F. Mantell chased the object to a height of 7000 meters. Later, the mangled remains of his plane would be found.

It was assumed that lack of Oxygen was the cause of the crash.

Mantell, Captain Thomas Francis Jr.

Pilot of an P-51 Mustang fighter killed on 7 January 1948, while pursuing an unidentified flying object near Godman AFB, Kentucky. The object had previously been seen by numerous witnesses on the ground. At 15,000 ft, Mantell radioed the control tower that the UFO was "metallic and tremendous in size" and "appears to be moving about half my speed". Just after 5:00 P.M., the wreckage of Mantell's plane was found, with the port wing, rear fuselage, and tail ripped off. His body was in the cockpit, and his watch had stopped at 3:18, which was taken as the time of impact. Crash investigators thought it most likely that Mantell had blacked out at about 25,000 ft, while his P-51 continued to 30,000 ft, lost power, levelled off, and then circled before going into a power dive.

The newly established Project Sign concluded that the UFO had been the planet Venus, which was in the right place to concur with the witnesses' reports from Godman. However, this theory failed to account for many other aspects of the case, including Mantell's reference to a very large, metallic object. A re-examination of the incident in the 1950s by Captain Edward Ruppelt came to the conclusion that what Mantell had really been chasing was a U.S. Navy Skyhook balloon, probably launched from Camp Ripley, Minnesota. However, the incident has never been conclusively explained.

In October, Lieutenant George F. Gorman of the National Guard in North Dakota reported a dogfight with a saucer over the town of Fargo. "I was on the flight back when I saw a strange light, 1.3 to 1.8 meters in diameter, white and completely round with a kind of aura around the rim". Gorman zeroed in on the light, the light zeroed in on Gorman. "For 27 minutes we circled like crazy. Then the light sped up and disappeared in a north-westernly direction".  The investigating officers of “Project Saucer" dug through these and 270 similar reports from all parts of the States. "A third of the reports are optic illusions of astronomic objects, like meteors, especially bright stars or planets, the 'Saucer' people confirmed. Other disks turned out to be position lights on weather balloons. Another misidentification was established as the so-called "Radar Balloons". These were sent up several kilometers by the US Army Signal Corps, equipped with huge aluminum disks acting as reflection surfaces for short radar waves. Impassioned saucer observers did not let themselves be convinced: "They Do Fly".

A Gallup poll in American cities established that 25% of US citizens believed in the existence of "Flying Saucers". Then the American Magazine "True" launched a publicity A-bomb:  "For 175 years Earth has been under the observation of living intelligent beings from another planet".

That was conclusion arrived at by Aviation Expert Donald E. Keyhoe after eight months of investigative research for the magazine. Keyhoe had merged his discoveries with astronomic reports of the past century. According to them, the explorers from outer space use three different flying machines: Small remote controlled TV transponders, flying disks with a diameter of 80 meters, that flew like helicopters, and large cigar-shaped flying machines.

After hundreds of newspapers and the most well-known radio-commentators had trumpeted the "True Story" throughout the States and the World, even the strongest denials by the US Air force could stop the flood of saucer rumours.

One version of the mouth-to-mouth tales was that for a long time the rocket testing station in White Sands, New Mexico had been watched by inter-planetary intruders. Then one day one of their large space ships crashes in flames over New Mexico. The 15 crew members burned beyond recognition, but some instruments remained intact. Among them was a receiver over which, at short intervals, came mysterious messages in an unknown Morse language. The story continues: "While American experts were examining the wreck, a second space ship crashed nearby. Both passengers were dead, but the body of one was intact, approximately 90 cm tall and of ape-like appearance". Then a better variant became current: "The little men did not die. Fifteen were captured alive. They could not talk, but one little man immediately drew a map of the Solar System and pointed to the planet second from the Sun. Thereupon the 'gentlemen from another star' were quickly put into a pressure chamber filled with a Venusian atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide".

Similar stories circulated about the qualities of the space ship wrecks. It was claimed that they were covered with a material totally unknown on Earth, that the metal parts were not welded but held together by a diamond-hard glue-like mass, and that the screws, nuts and bolts were of a completely new construction. In this heated atmosphere of rumors, the flowers of con men bloomed.

Two Brazilians, Oswaldo Silva und Circlo Souza offered people "interested in the purchase of a Flying Saucer" the opportunity "to place their order now". Silva and Souza asked for "only a little patience and a ten dollar deposit for each saucer".  Both were arrested shortly for "crimes against the economy".

In Memphis, the inhabitants eagerly collected card board "Flying Saucers" with the written message: “Flying Saucer – Upon redemption receive 10% discount on a pound of sausage".

For photographers the saucers provided plentigful montages for April Fool’s pictures.

The Spanish newspaper "Madrid" came up with a different solution:  “Hitler has escaped into the Himalaya Mountains with a group of scientists, from where he is releasing the Flying Saucers".

In Bremerhaven-Lehe, Luisenstraße 9, II. Etage links, Airplane Engineer Rudolf Schriever, Flugkapitän a.D. carefully collects all reports about the flying disks. "I thought right away of my machine, the Flugkreisel I constructed. The idea originated in 1942. At the time I was Chief Pilot in Eger", recounts Schriever. Watching children at play, throwing horizontally rotating propellers made of flat wire twisted into spirals into the air, the idea struck him. “Like these kids’ propellers, a properly constructed round disk can launch into the air". Schriever brooded over the first sketches. After a year, he entrusted some Czech engineers in Praque with the statistical calculations and detailed drawings. "“The people did not know at that time what it concerned". His light metal Flugkreisel consisted of three parts; the gondola upper part [resembling a flattened sphere] with the command bridge and controls, the revolving gondola lower area, and the rotating disk blades that were to give the lift like a helicopter.

The rotor blade disk was to have a diameter of 14.4 meters. On the underside of the disk three jet outlets were attached to very broad hollow mounts containing the fuel. "The jets rotate the disk, and the exhaust gases create the appearance of a fiery disk. Performance of 1650 to 1800 revolutions per minute could be attained. That corresponds to a launch of 100 meters per second. For a normal fighter plane it is 25 meters a second at the most". The 3 meter long rotors were adjustable like an ordinary air screw, for vertical lift or cruising. "As soon as the disk is operating, it replaces the lifting planes". It surrounded the command gondola, geared with a differential. In this manner, Schriever wanted to prevent that the gondola would be brought into counter-rotation by the disk. The lower gondola can turn 360 degrees and has two drive jets for horizontal propulsion. "If the pilot wants to change course, he only has to lower the section in the proper direction".  The diameter of the gondola was 3.6 meters, the height 3.2 meters according to Schriever’s plans. All calculations of the propulsion jets were based on the just developed Me 262, the 3 ton Flugkreisel would be able to attain a horizontal speed of 4200 kilometers per hour. Its range, according to Schriever’s calculations, was around 6000 kilometers, with outstanding take-off and landing qualities, low air resistance allowing for high speeds, improved vertical rise [the apparatus can hover in one spot for hours or sink by millimeters], and economy of mass production. Schriever worked on his plans till 15 April 1945. The drawings were completed. Schriever wanted to submit his materials to Her­mann Göring's RLM. The Russians came first. Schriever packed up.

He set up his workshop in the garden house of his parents-in-law in Bremerhaven-Lehe. On 4 August 1948 it was burglarized. Schriever’s Flugkreisel plans and his only model were gone. The corresponding file of the criminal police in Bremerhaven closes with the statement: "Investigation ended. Unknown culprit escaped". Since then, Rudolf Schriever has talked with some agents of foreign powers about far-off lands and beautiful plans. The Bremerhaven CIC keeps an eye on the truck-driver Rudolf Schriever, employed by the Motor Pool of the US Army. “If I had the opportunity I would immediately build such a thing and fly it. The Flying Top or Flying Saucers are no toys. They are of the highest signifance for the development of Aviation Technology". Schriever is convinvced to this day that the engineers from Praque reconstructed his Flugkreisel for another power. There is no "Secret of the Flying Saucers" for him.

In the meantime the weekly paper "Teen-Age Times" in Dublin published the first photograph of five flying saucers in V-formation. In an extensive report, the paper claims the saucers are the predecessors pf unmanned "Hanging Bombs" or Space Stations. Armed with atomic bombs they could assume a stationary location over any area of the Earth’s surface and, if necessary, be launched by remote control at any targeted goal. "Teen Age Time" believes such "Hanging Bombs" already are above several major cities and some atomic plants.

Calling for calm, the US Defence Ministry declares: "The safety of the United States is in no way threatened. However, should the flying saucers land and little men with radar antenna ears emerge we would then have to take some kind of action".

For the three page article in "Der Spiegel" a graphic representing Schriever’s description of his Flugkreisel was used.

The concepts revealed by the news magazine should accompany the debates about the Nazi-Kreisflügler – to weaken the later "Secret Weapon Theory" with facts that counter the rising "Neo-Nazi-Untertassen" ideas and their interlocked ideology..

It is important, in any case, that Schriever had only worked out his ideas on paper and other than the miniature model stolen from him after the war, no successful 1:1 protoype existed, not even pre-production plans. This is important to realize, to recognize that later claims of a war-time built and flown secret example are exaggerations and forgeries, which a certain section of UFO-fans still calls on as facts. It is insane [but in the total context normal] that made up fantasies and false claims of facts or lies become solid historic events and the actual realities are ignored and circumvented. Crazy/confused world of Ufology.

Also used was a montage of a church steeple swarmed by flying plates [Caption: "Grateful Object – 1 April Photo"]. Also the montage-like photo from the "Teen Age Times" was used [with the caption: "We would then have to take some kind of action"]. Also a photo of Ingenieur Schriever: "Build such a thing and fly it".

Revolution in Aeronautics - Saucer: Device of the US War Navy? - Radioactively Driven - Ultrasonic Speed – Ready for Mass Production it read in the "Weser Kurier" of 5 April 1950.

Is the American War Navy producing Flying Saucers? That is the question raised by the revelations of the US correspondent of the Parisian newspaper "Le Monde", who cabled his paper details of the origins of the Flying Saucers story. "Le Monde", extremely careful in the handling of such sensationalism, gave this information a large presentation on page one:

As already certified today, the Flying Saucers are neither a fairy tale nor a mass suggestion, but rather the newest air device, that signifies a true revolution in the area of aeronautics.

According to the report of the US correspondent of "Le Monde" the attempts of the American war navy have already thrived to the point that the radioactively driven flight devices can be produced within a short time industrially in series. The first attempts were undertaken in the year 1942 by the airplane company Chance-Vought according to plans of the American engineer Charles Zimmermann who is a member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The first apparatus, which was equipped with two motors, had the form of an ellipse and a maximum speed of 850 kilometers per hour. Over one hundred trial flights were carried out. Today the "flying saucers" are technically improved, and have a circular shape consisting of three stacked of metal disks. The diameter of the disks is about 30 meters, and the thickness of each disk is three meters. The middle disk is somewhat wider than the upper and lower. Seen from above, the rim of the middle plate appears like a wide belt holding everything together.

Completely new is that neither outer wings nor stabilizers or rudders are visible. This is in contrast to the V-2, which has little wings. The fuel used is still unknown. Since, however, the device can traverse even long stretches in gliding mode, fuel is saved in this manner. The remote-controlled motors can be driven by a control system, so that the flight path can be exactly determined. The most various movements are possible through remote control; the device can climb vertically, fly horizontally, make curves up to 90 degrees and can even be brought to a standstill by remote control. The flight speed is said to already exceed the speed of sound. In tests, three of the fastest American Air Force airplanes of the Type F 41 were engaged, without succeeding in "cornering" the flying saucer. The American Army and the American Air Force have denied categorically that they produce flying saucers. The denials of the American Navy, on the other hand, are uncertain and evasive. The Navy admits that it carried out attempts for a long time with flying saucers, referring to years past. The War Navy is therefore especially interested in this air device because it can be transported on aircraft carriers and can take off and land vertically.

 On 9 April 1950 the Hamburg newspaper "Die Strasse" reported:

Flying Saucers a German Invention – Land of Origin: the Soviet Union

For three years already flying saucers have been terrorizing mankind. Since for the first time a man saw this unique disk in the air, spewing flames, racing along at Mach speed, almost like a messenger from a far-off world, the reports in the papers and on the radio have not stopped. Mankind, already plagued by fears had been given another one. Had! – for the secret of the these flying saucers has been revealed and so loses its nimbus of the fear arousing Unexplainable. The first step towards this revelation was an interview granted to the INS (International News Service) in Rome by a known Italian physicist, Professor Giuseppe Belluzo. Professor Belluzo described himself as one of the inventors of the Flying Saucers, and also pointed at some Germans who had worked with him or under the direction of others as technicians and engineers. One of these men, he said, was the engineer Kurt Schnittke in Regensburg. He was questioned by an associate of "Die Strasse" with the result that the flying saucers have ceased to be a puzzle. With that all speculations that attempted to explain the origins and construction of the flying saucers, more or less imaginatively, have come to an end. This is an example how fear can be the father of the most incredible rumors. Even now some foreign newspapers are claiming that Hitler, who, with a group of German engineers escaped to the Himalayan Mountains, is sending these disks, or that they are messengers from a distant inhabited planet, whose inhabitants are more advanced than earthlings.

The information that the physicist Belluzzo in Rome und the German engineer Schnittke imparted, reveal clearly that the flying saucers are not messengers from inhabited planets, as a Space and rocket expert recently speculated. One of the constructors, said Schnittke, went to the Soviet Union in 1945 with a group of German co-workers. Without a doubt the German and Italian constructions were further developed there. In this scenario, it is not unimportant to stress that the first flying saucers were seen three years ago in Poland, Finland and Sweden. At first it was believed that the observers, mostly simple farmers, fell prey to some kinds of self delusion. It is not unimportant for the western world to know that the east has control of this invention. On the other hand, a known danger is only half a danger, and is further lessened by the fact that at least two of the leading constructors reside in the west.

US Marine Tests Flying Disk/Adjustable Jet Nozzles Permit Vertical Start it read, via DPA from Washington and on 11 April 1950 the Rhein-Neckar Zeitung reported:

The American magazine "United States News and World Report" in its latest edition insists there are proofs that the so called saucers are real airplanes. “There are proofs,” it writes, “that the flying saucers, that actually should be called a flying disk, are a combination of helicopter and jet plane. They conform throughout to known aerodynamic laws. In 1942, American engineers build the first model of these saucers, with which more than 100 test flights were performed. During the war this model was further developed by the US Marine.“ The machine had an elliptical shape and was driven by two piston engines, with a top speed of about 800 kilometers an hour. Landing speed was only 60 kmh. The machine was able to take off almost vertically. From this information the United States News and World Report infers that the current models would have a diameter of about 32 and a height of about 3 meters. A highly placed government engineer assumes that the machine is equipped with adjustable jet nozzles that simultaneously provide impetus and steering. Speed and direction would be regulated by the number and angle of the employed nozzles.

Flying Saucer Or Flying Turtle? read the title above a DPA photograph which was also reproduced in the Frankfurter Rundschau on 13 April 1950, accompanied by this text:

The US marine has developed a test plane called XF 5 U1, which as "Flying Turtle” could have contributed to eye witness accounts of flying saucers. Our picture shows the machine, equipped with two engines and air screws, with a claimed top speed of 750 kilometers per hour.

On 13 April 1950, Wochenend published the article The Riddle of the Flying Saucers Solved. Technical Associate, Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Gartmann, explains:

No spaceships from Mars, just a completely new revolutionary airplane type – that is what is behind the secret exciting the whole world. “Helicopter + Nur-Flügel airplane = Flying Saucer.” The editors of "Wochenend", in publishing this attention arousing attempt at a solution to the secret, depend on the absolute integrity of its technical associate, who enjoys an international reputation as a rocket expert and scientific leader of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung [German Society for Space Exploration]. In a small schematic drawing “The German Project of 1938” is introduced, that existed, in principle already in 1938. On the right, is the rough sketch of “The Italian Project of 1941", of the Physicist. Prof. Giuseppe Belluzzo from Milan. Belluzzo’s Flying Disk was to be unmanned and to be only used as a assault weapon. Through two opposing jet nozzles it was to be put into rotary motion.

With spring, something like a ‘Season of Flying Saucers’ began. Last year There was also an increase in the number of sightings of flying phenomena in spring, but at this time the flood of reports surpasses the commotion caused by the world famous Loch Ness Monster before the beginning of World War Two. This fabled beast turned out to be a clever invention since. The ‘Story’ was so suggestive that hundreds of people thought they really saw the giant animal. How about the Flying Saucers? Its striking that there is practically no corner on Earth from which there are no sensational reports of sightings of strange flying devises. I would wager 99% of all reported flying saucers in the last while would dissolve into nothing if one made the effort of a thorough investigation. Balloons, airplanes, shooting stars, radar aids, even brightly shining planets like Venus – those are the flying phenomena seen currently in masses. US Airforce officers spoke of a ‘mild form of mass hysteria’ and a known German Professor and Astronomist added ‘the Americans once again are real Spökenkieker, as they were to be showed once before with Orson Welles’ radio broadcast of "War of the Worlds", an invasion by Martians.

In spite of that, one in four Americans believes in the existence of ‘saucers’ as a Gallup poll established. 9% of respondents are of the opinion that the phenomena are spaceships from another planet. Science Fiction, the popular utopian entertainment, has left lasting impressions. That becomes evident in the latest tales, that border on the absurd. “Dwarfs” have been found in shot down saucers – Suddenly there are radios in the devices from which strange sounds emerge – Sounds from Mars! That is the same kind of story as was spun around the “well mannered Loch Ness Monster…that turned around when a lady undressed for a swim”! The assumption that the mysterious flying apparatuses were messengers from outer space is too precious and exciting to maintain itself. We know now that flying saucers do not come from Mars or one of the moons of Jupiter. According to Gallup, however, only 1% of Americans are of the opinion that the ‘saucers’ could be test objects of the US Air fighting forces. The latter deny this immediately and forcefully and explain they have nothing to do with Flying Saucers. With ‘Flying Saucers’? Maybe they have another more prosaic name for a new air plane!

Let’s get to the bottom of the mystery. The American radio commentator Henry Raylor on his regular ABC program declared that flying saucers truly existed. It was about time that the American Air force put an end to the charade. The saucers are coming neither from outer space nor the Soviet Union, but are a US military secret! At the same time, in Italy, the scientist Giuseppe Belluzzo who is a leading figure in the field of rocket construction is heard from. In "Giornale d'Italia he asserted that flying saucers as a unique airplane shape were already developed in 1942 in Germany and Italy. They are therefore nothing supernatural and don’t come from space. Presently they would likely be developed further by one of the major powers. Professor Belluzzo also gave a description of flying saucer he designed. With that a ‘cosmic secret’ began to unravel. The ‘Invasion of the Flying Saucers’ during the last weeks was mass hysteria, created by reports of an unknown airplane. This unknown plane, however, exists. The American air fighting forces are in the position to destroy one of biggest sensations of all time. They have generously published pictures of the latest rockets and jet planes. Why is the new type hiding behind the concept ‘flying saucer' still kept a secret?

Wochenend has the answer to that question and also provides the first description of the newest airplane in the world. The solution of the riddle begins with a letter written by Ingenieur Carl Wagner. He saw a picture of the ‘Flying Saucers’ and “celebrated his third rendezvous with that aircraft type.”

Already in 1938, Carl Wagner saw German design sketches for an airplane far removed from the norm. In 1943 he heard for the second time of this type, and in a place where the talks were factual and knowledgeable, the Ersatzkompanie für Soldaten im Ingenieursdienst der Luftwaffe [replacement company for soldiers in engineer duty for the air force] in Detmold. His depositions correspond closely with those of the Italian Professor Belluzzo, and they were written down and sent off before the announcement of the Giornale d'Italia! This is the aircraft type engineer Wagner describes:

An extended cigar or egg shaped cabin, around which, at center of gravity, a system of air screw rotates. The space between the cabin sides and the air screw ring is covered. The design of 1938 had anticipated propulsion by piston engines, with the counter revolution equalized by gyroscopes. By 1942 and 1943, jet propulsion techniques had advanced to the point that rocket jet nozzles could be utilized.

The raw sketches which engineer Wagner drew from memory provide a clear explanation of the observed phenomena. Seen from above or below, the airplane looks like the flying saucer or disk, repeatedly described by pilots, last by Dr. Craig Hunter in Berkley Springs, Virginia. Dr. Hunter saw that the ‘ring’ turning with a hiss while the inner part was motionless. The technician Julian Gardiol reported in Lima he had seen a ‘disk’ at the beach of Miraflores. Its sides were yellow and red and sparks shot out from the rim. If one analyzes all the believable about discs, the most convincing explanation is the Flying Top airplane with jet propulsion described by Wagner.

It was not only disks that were observed, but also two other totally different shapes. ‘Flying Eggs with little wings' and ‘Flying Cigars.’ Even for those the interpretation is simple. Seen from behind the circular airplane appears as an egg or a ball, where the fast rotating screw circle is misinterpreted and seen as a thin bearing surface. The often seen ‘Flying Cigars’ or ‘Rockets’ were unanimously described by all observers as having a bluish or reddish ‘belt’ on the side. What is more obvious than the picture of a circiular air plane, seen from the side, showing its elongated cabin while only the flame circle from the nozzles of the jet propelled screw circle is visible?

Wagner’s claims were checked and re-calculated by the well-known aviation expert and pilot Dipl. Ing. Horst-Dieter Lux. Lux became famous professional aviation circles for his calibration measurements of high performance gliders, his tests of the "Hucke­pack-Flugzeug" (Mistel) and through studies of the results of his own high altitude dive flights. Currently, in Munich, he is developing a totally unconventional orientation device for air planes, motor vehicles and ships, that may attain great significance as a global positioner.

Could the described airplane model fly?

Yes, of course! It’s really a new type of helicopter. The screws are, as observations let us assume, driven by jets. The best trust is achieved at high speeds. That is why the revolutions per minute must be high, which allows the circular area to be smaller. That is important to increase high speed horizontal speed. Too many blades are not good, that is why this type, likely, only has a few rapidly rotating ‘wings’ that appear as disk at high revolution counts. It is advantageous that the ‘wings’ have an outer ring which reduces air resistance.

How are the high speeds explained?

The aircraft can easily have jet proulsion when in the horizontal mode. That has often been observed and described.”

How would the steering work?

Like on a helicopter, through adjustment of the blades. These can be imagined, moving singly or in in arcs inside the inner ring. Since it is a symmetrical body, it can also be guided by gyroscope, which avoids alldifficult mechanical solutions. Steering is possible without externally visible stabilizers or rudders.

Wouldn’t the cabin rotate in unison? Observers describe an immobile core. Is that possible?

With an ordinary drive train, the counter-revolution effect can be equalized in many ways, like with a helicopter. With jet propulsion the cabin has a tendency to turn due to friction. With counter trust, that can be avoided, or a small aerodynamic rudder surface can handle it. It would not even be obvious from the outside.

And now, most importantly. Why are ’Saucers’ being built?

Modern aircraft development stands vis-à-vis two demands: Faster and faster, and slow to the point of stand-still in the air! The first demand is fulfilled through highly refined drives (rockets) and jets. The ’Tail-less’ represent the ideal. The entire plane consists only of a wing, that is to say, the only part necessary for flying. There is no ’dead’ surface to impair performance through friction. In actual fact, the ideal is still not reached. What is flying now is still in the trial stage. A special problem are the high take off and landing speeds of the ’fast planes’, runways of 4 to 5 kilometers are barely adequate. The second demand is fulfilled by the helicopter. It flies so slowly that it can hover in the air. But, it can’t fly fast. At fault is its bad shape which offers the wind large surface areas to attack, and also the air resistance caused by huge wind-mill blades.

Is it possible to somehow combine these two airplane types?

If one succeeds in that, one of the biggest challenges in today’s aviation would be solved – to be able to be both fast and slow. An airplane with the take-off and landing abilities with the high speed of a modern jet would be the ideal. Take a helicopter, compress it to the minimal height of a ‘Nur­flügel’ plane, give the blades a high rotation speed, create an aerodynamically advantageous shape for the whole, layer the wings in rings and drive the rotor by ram jets like a plane – there is the ideal plane! The formula is quite simple: ‘Helicopter + Nur­flü­gel = 'Flying Saucer'. The saucer is thus a special shape of a Nur­flü­gel, where the surface area is not solid but composed of single blades like a helicopter.”

That is the solution to the riddle of the flying saucers. Not spaceships from other planets, but new air planes whose existence is stubbornly denied. The aeronautical qualities Horst-Dieter Lux has described make this strict secrecy understandable. Take a lesson from the big Hoaxes, the deliberate swindles of the past as a warning. All speculation of an ‘Invasion from Mars” was simply nothing more than the exploitation of human belief in the wonderful. We all wanted to believe in a ‘Visit from Outer Space’. But now its time to seize back the reins. Fantasy may serve as a live giving and exciting element, but that is all we will allow it. The German and Italian constructors have brought light into the darkness surrounding the mysterious flying devices.

A special report was filed by Aug. W. Peck on 22 April 1950 in the Volkszeitung:

Flying Saucers, No Longer a Riddle

If one is to believe the latest reports, the secret surrounding the flying saucers has now been lifted. For three years a fearful humanity debated the issue; seldom before has a subject had so many manifestations and denials as these rotating flat shapes. Since for the first time people saw the strange racing, fire-spewing disks, the reports of new sightings have not stopped. Sensationalized reports assigned them missions and qualities that bordered on the laughable. All these tales covered the gamut of possibilities between mass hysteria and truth, which made an objective assessment extremely difficult.

In an interview he granted to a representative of INS in Rome, the noted Italian Physicist Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo described himself as co-inventor of the ‘Flying Saucer’, pointing out some Germans he had worked with. One of these German inventors is the constructors is Rentel who went to Russia with his staff in 1945. It is assumed that he further developed the flying plate invented in 1942 (as did the technicians in the US) and is behind flying saucer launches from Russia. Ingenieur K. Schnittke, another inventor of the flying plate, who together with Rentel in March 1943 worked on the trials of the flying disk in the early stages, is of the same opinion. Schnittke, who lives in the West Zone, thinks it is time to finally clear up for the public the story of the rotating disks.

Originally the Flying Saucers were intended as defensive weapons against bomber formations. The inspiration was the flying screw seeds of nature like the maple or oak. The enlarged ‘Rotating Disks’ received an explosive load instead of a seed, and were released en masse at 8-10000 meters altitude, to descend slowly. If airplanes entered a cloud of such ‘Rotating Disks’, they were hopelessly lost, for the slightest contact set off the explosive load. In order not to cause destruction on the ground, they were programmed to automatically explode at 1000 meters. One can best compare these ‘Rotating Disks’ with the propeller set into motion in a well known children’s toy and at the proper moment is thrown into the air, where it moves freely as long as its kinetic energy lasts. The flying plates work on the same principle, except that the motive power is in the wings, that is to say, the built in jet engines. Those put the wing into rotating motion by means of their opposing trusts. Such a disk, 52 meters in diameter, 6 meters height, in which the cabin is mounted within the rotating area of the wing, and thus does not rotate along, was said to already to have been developed during World War Two. The exiting fire tail at the end of the wings, because of the furious rotary motion, would appear as a large shining disk in the nightly skies. Its top speed approached the speed of sound. Even if nothing is known about the current flying saucers, in principle they would not differ significantly from those of the war years. In the opinion of the inventors, launch speeds of 10,000 meters a minute and ranges of several thousand kilometres would be no problems for such a plane.

A large percentage of apparently fantastic sounding reports would find validation if such aerial devices were shown.

Flying Saucers – Riddle Solved. Circular Airplanes with Turbojet Propulsion at Practical Testing Stage announced Albert Püllenberg on 22 April 1950 in Hamburg’s Freie Presse:

The local media and foreign media constantly report about themysterious flying saucers. Everyone claims to have seen them. It is even claimed they are messengers from other stars. Of course this claim is made up of thin air, there is no basis for it. The flying saucers are of complete earthly origins. Their explanation is simple. They are nothing but a unique kind of rocket plane, embodiying the current results of aviation developments. In constructing the flying saucers the easiest route was chosen and traditional airplane construction methods abandoned. This conversion was made possible by the turbo jet. The ongoing development of rocket and turbojet propulsion systems led to simplified engine designs, which exponentially increase the output of a normal airplane engine of the same weight. The fuel consumption of the turbo jet systems is still within economic limits. The construction of the flying plate can be explained like this: When a large circular disk is put into motion, air streams in the direction of the rim and creates a low pressure area above and below the disk causing lift. If, by constructive design air flow is only allowed to stream towards the rim on the upper side of the disk, propulsion similar to a regular airplane results. The rotation of the disk is maintained by the distribution of jets along the diameter, whose air supply for launch comes from the upper side of the disk. Air is delivered trough pipes to the individual turbo motors. The launch of the disks can probably be initiated from a ‘carousel’ by rocket start aids: once the full rotation speed of the disk is reached, the turbo jets take over and the disk rises vertically like a helicopter. Its forward motion results from a system of adjustable propeller stubs arranged on its under side and that determine speed by their application, further augmented by the turbo jets.

For what purpose are the Flying Saucers being build and tested?

They had their origin in the US, although German inventors had worked at this problem for a long time.

The construction of inter-continental missiles for the defence of the American homeland have not advanced to the point where they can cross the Atlantic. The operation of the mega-bombers B-36 is jeopardized by further developments of German ‘Secret Weapons’ like "Wasserfall", "Rheintochter" etc. The costs for such a long distance rocket and mega-bomber are prohibitive, a defence based on these means appears too expensive. The mass production of Flying Saucers, which are really nothing more than a further development of the German V-1 cheap due to its simplicity. Flying saucers are produced in different types. It can be assumed that their explosive load is greater than that of the V-1. The operational radius is dependant on the available fuel, but should also be several times that of the V-1. The flying saucers need only fuel to fly to their target, drop their bomb load, and return. Its questionable if they are planned to carry Atom or Hydrogen bombs. Likely they are intended as automatic bombers, to weaken the morale of the enemy homeland, and to tie up their defensive means. We can only hope that the Flying Saucers will never be used.

This ‘fantastic’ article was accompanied by an official photograph of the ‘Flying Pancake’. This late model of the US Marine can easily be mistaken for the much talked about Flying Saucer.

Further there was a sketch of a saucer carrying an H-bomb, the way author Püllenberg probably saw it in his dreams.

A small drawing shows one of the imaginary saucers in flight under the clouds and over the sea.

Something is hard to understand from today’s view-point - that these fantastical journeys in earth-bound flying saucers were to be truly accepted as serious. Somehow the impression arises that this special ‘German Flying Saucer’ explanation originated in a Hamburg inspired contest for the best April Fool’s gag of 1950.

Erwin Kirchhof reported from Hamburg in the Neue Presse published in Frankfurt on.April 25, 1950:

'Flying Saucer' Most Modern Airplane Type – The Result of Aerodynamic Research –
The Nur-Flü­gel Airplane

Flying Saucers, those note-worthy phenomena that succeeded in making fools out of the technically informed humanity of the 20th Century for months, are nothing but the results of modern aviation research. The Flying Saucer is a Nur-Flü­gel airplane with fluid rocket drive. The experts took their time to state that. Admittedly, it was not easy in the mêlée caused the flood of pseudo-scientific articles and uncontrolled reports, to see a clean technical picture of these ‘heavenly’ appearances. Even now we are not in the position to provide construction instructions or publish construction drawings. These vault doors are still shut. The "Neue Presse" is able, however, to publish the reports of its associates. We believe that they will provide technical insights into the ‘secret’ of the flying disks for our readers, without the fear of once again being victims of a ‘Saucer Speculation”. The development of aeronautic technology has taken such an upturn in the last few years that modern planes flying at supersonic speed make all former planes appear obsolete. What does the secret of the flying saucers consist of? In other words, can such aerial devices as have been observed bwee actually flown or remote controlled by humans.

The first question can be answered in the affirmative without hesitation, if we can rid ourselves of the generally held belief that everything that flies has to have a fuselage and bearing surfaces in order to stay airborne through forward trust movement and speed. In the course of the development of aviation, a history of fifty years, there have been many airplane types explored, developed and tested that resemble the Flying Saucer in their outer form. Airplane builders anticipated being able to exceed speed limits imposed on regular planes by their bearing surface construction.

Already in 1910, Professor Hugo Junkers, one of the most significant machiniss and airplane builder in the world, patented the first Nur-Flügel plane. The further development of this machine was halted before the war because of financial limitations. 


When during World War Two once again all energies were mobilized to overcome the enemy, no means were spared to even drive development of the Nur-Flügel plane forward. Airplane builders had realized that all plane types in circular form had the best technical and aerodynamic qualities for supersonic flight. When advances in rocket research at the same time took tremendous strides forward, it made available a motive power for Nur-Flügel planes to exceed the sped limits unreachable using piston engines. It may be difficult today to determine which nation achieved the greatest advances in the development of the rocket powered Nur-Flügel plane, in the shape of the so-called Flying Saucer. Without a doubt German inventors and constructors also played a decisive part. It is certain that since 1945 not only were the experiences, especially in aviation, gained during the war feverishly exploited, but also that the political tensions between east and west strongly influenced the completion of the new revolutionary airplane type.

The recently cleared for publication by the US Air force Nur-Flügel planes, called "Flounder" and "Flying Turtle", appear to be the predecessors of the Flying Saucers. It doesn’t take much imagination now to think that these freed from secrecy types have been superseded by construction improvements, which have astounding similarity to a flying saucer. It is to be assumed that the newest models are circular and have the latest fluid rocket drives instead of piston aircraft engines. The discoid construction is statically and aerodynamically for superior to any previous type. Experts insist that crashes are almost impossible for this construction: since all forces are equally distributed there is no danger of breakage for fuselage or wings because of metal fatigue. Stabilizers and rudders are integral with the circular bearing surface. It is easily possible that the immense propulsion forces enable this plane construction to achieve of 6000 kilometres an hour at altitudes between 10,000 and 20,000 meters. Such a plane could fly from New York to London in an hour without difficulty. Modern rocket research is aiming for speeds of over 10,000 kilometres an hour.

The answer to the second question, could humans fly or remote control such devices, is also yes. The pilot cabin is of a special construction, hermetically sealed from the outside atmosphere, pressurized and equipped with oxygen. Remote contro is no problem with todays technology. Airports with runways of 2000 – 3000 meters would be sufficient for the flying saucers. To sum up the Flying Saucers are nothing more than the latest product of modern aviation technology.

The enthusiasm about the further development of aircraft and rocket technology is astounding, especially when over 50 years later there still is no sight of Flying Saucers rolling out of earthly factories. Kirchhof’s text copy was accompanied by impressive aeronautically oriented pictorial material, which certainly inspired many a handyman or thinker inspiration to engage in mental construction of a saucer.

Kirchhof included a graphic of a model saucer in flight with the following caption: "The Flying Saucer, made in Germany – only as a model by a noted expert. He, and all the others, who have spent a lifetime in discovery and development of new aircraft types, are of the opinion that this discoid area construction is far superior, statically and aerodynamically to all former airplane types".

Then there is a cross sectional drawing of a flying saucer, again, as designed by experts, without naming names of course: "It is a circular load surface with retractable landing gear. The propulsion power results from two modern liquid-fuel rocket engines with approximately 20,000 horsepower. The fuel is carried in the middle of the load deck. The pilot’s cabin, located in the upper carrying deck, is hermetically sealed and equipped with oxygen generators".

In a five-part series of sketches, the history of aerodynamics is shown with airplanes: "A few examples of the development of flight technology. #1 shows an airplane of the year 1912 when aerodynamic laws were unknown. #2 from 1936 is already build based on the fundamentals of new scientific knowledge. #3 is the depiction of a tail-less airplane. This type was already registered as a patent in 1910 by Prof. Hugo Junkers and developed further by the Americans in 1946. #4 shows a modern airplane from 1948. #5 is the US plane “Flying Turtle’ recently released from secrecy. It proves in its shape the transition to the Flying Sauce"r.

In fact, however, neither the pure delta winged Nur-Flügler of Junkers and the Horten brothers nor the "Flying Flap­jack" of the US Ma­ri­ne had a chance. As can be seen, even today, even the latest jet airplane are still cast in the classic mould.

The Sea Serpent with the Saucer Eyes the Frankfurter Rundschau reported on May 6, 1950:

The only good thing about the Flying Saucer yarn the pilot Kenneth Arnold spun on a warm June evening in the year 1947 when he told of his nine Flying Saucers circling around Mount Rainier, is that all free thinkers and attic aviation experts have an opportunity to pull a flying saucer model out of the closet. 'Time' magazine made the effort some days ago to investigate some eye witness reports and pot the sources of particularly alarm reports under the magnifying glass. A very serious and respected publication (with a circulation of over 300,000) dedicated, only a short time ago, three pages of one edition ro an article entitled “The True Story of the Flying Saucers”. According to it, the US Navy already built a revolutionary airplane type, midway between a helicopter and a fighter jet, in 1942. the test flown experimental models are identical to the mysterious saucers.

Somewhat later a similar article appeared in the New York Herald Tribune and shortly thereafter in 200 local papers, whose author cited the said article in the serious paper. He forgets to mention, however, that he, himself, is the publisher of his referral paper. It is the publication in separate papers that elevated the Saucer Saga to a Mythos. Respected commentators believed they could no longer remain skeptical, and CBS Radio announced a highly scientific book about Flying Saucers. Even the other side, doubters and aviation specialists, became attentive and wanted to get to the bottom of the matter.

First of all the author of the famous report in True magazine, Fleet Officer Mcaughin, was to be heard from. He was, however, just then at sea for several months. Upon his return he declared the claim that flying saucers were identical with a special plane of the US Fleet were total nonsense. The secret helicopter of similar appearance existed as only a single example and was never flown. A follow-up model type had its last test flight in 1947. Since then it was on display in a museum. Mcaughin, however, stayed firm with his 1947 report of having seen a flying saucer with his own eyes. He had little luck then with his sailor’s yarn; the answer of his superiors was laconic and straight forward: “What kind of Whiskey have you been at?”

Soon thereafter McLaughin was assigned to a post on the high seas where he could breathe lots of salt air. That did not prevent him, however, from selling his views on the saucers including his eye witness report to The Week magazine. Shortly before publication, the publishers got ‘cold feet’ and sold the story of the spaceships from outer space to True magazine; they did not hesitate to finally present McLaughin’s yarn to the public.

The Defence Ministry rushed to officially declare that none of its departments were involved in any development of discoid aircraft, nor much less had completed any. The, in the meantime created, investigation committee “Saucers”, collected and investigated over 200 “eye witness reports.” The results were pitiful: ‘All reports of unknown discoid aircraft can at best be attributed to optical illusions; in many cases, however, they are the results of hysteria and auto-suggestion.’ The evidence of the Saucer Adherents proved to be more than threadbare. Of the 3000 eye witnesses in the newspaper Mexico Star, none stayed ‘firm in the saddle’. The wildest story appeared in a Los Angeles newspaper.

According to that report, an Explosives Salesman, Ray Dimmick, had discovered the remains of a crashed saucer in the Mexican Mountains. Exact revelations about the power train, the material, the measurements and other details were skillfully interwoven with his story. Not satisfied with that, Mr. Dimmick also claimed to have seen the charred corpse of an alien dwarf pilot. The next day, after a good night’s sleep, Mr. Dimmick decided he had seen nothing: it was two strangers who had told him everything. The Dimmick Tale had, however, already started its journey around the world in all newspapers. The denials followed much slower. Thus, there are still today many places on Earth, where there is belief in the Saucers, much as there was 500 years earlier in Flying Dragons, and later in the Sea Serpent of Loch Ness, which reigned as precedessors for the Saucers.

Flying Saucer Invented in Germany - Flugkapitän Schriever: “Had we been able to continue working they would be as common a sight here as hot buns in a bread basket” it read in a special report in the Deutsche Illustrierte Nr.45/1952.

It was dressed up a with a large scale, utopian appearing cross-sectional drawing, 'the Flugkreisel', with an idyllic family photograph (‘Pilgrimage goal of the experts is now the small house in Bremverhaven-Lehe, where the inventor lives today. From west and east delegates are arriving constantly to make him the most enticing offers.’) as well as a technical (but easily understood by laymen) sketch and a snapshot of the “Inventor, Flugkapitän Schriever” in flying gear seen from behind in a cockpit (Text:: ‘Schriever was chief pilot with the leading German aviation firms. He worked four years on the construction of the Flugkreisel. His plans, for which the world powers are clamoring, were stolen after the capitulation.’)  In addition there is the facsimile of a letter from Schriever to someone, in which he even turned down offers from outside countries, so no foreign powers could take advantage of his knowledge: “He has had bad experiences. For our readers he reconstructed his plans.” Then, there are also two more snapshots of the so-called “Birth Place of the Flying Saucer” on the German/Czech border where Schriever was born. In contrast to the meaningless but nonetheless impressive pictorial material, the text is low-key:“Ghosts…new secret weapons…emissaries from other planets? Those are questions the world is asking itself.

 “There is a man living in Germany who can say a lot more about this subject than anyone else in the world. All around the smallhouse near Bremerhaven in which he lives commotion has been reigning supreme for some time now. Delegates from American Research Institutes and Universities, Professors and Engineers of western and eastern powers pass each other in the doorway. The discrete silence they all maintain is all related tone and the same matter – the ‘Flying Saucer #1’. It was constructed by the inhabitant of the house, the Engineer and Chief Pilot Rudolf Schriever, between 1941 and 1945 and was designated ‘Flugkreisel’ in the technical aviation arsenal of the former German Luftwaffe, now scattered in every direction of the winds for seven years. On the table there is a stack of letters from many countries, and daily more arrive. The house on Hökerstraße 28 in Bremerhaven-Lehe has achieved world fame in expert circles. With a laugh, Flugkapitän Schriever walks to the window: “Why didn’t I leave the country? Here’s a load of contract offers: South America, USA, East Germany - or should I say Russia. But maybe I am now immune to deception after I had bad experiences in South America.” And the Flugkreisel? “It is of course reality, just as, maybe, some of the sightings of flying saucers are nothing but exploitation of my design plans, which were ‘kindly’ stolen from me in Regen, in the Bavarian woods, at farmer Prestel’s place on May 14, 1945. I was welcomed there with my family on our flight from Prague.“

The idea itself? It is basically simple. Not only the main problem, but also the main danger in flight, is that starting and landing are possible only at high speeds. Helicopters can start and land vertically, but are relatively slow in flight. Why not then combine the outstanding qualities of the helicopter and the normal plane construction with each other? Thus Schriever came up with the idea of making the fuselage a flattened sphere in the center, with several blades fitted together like a disc, rotating around it .

“On July 15, 1941, I took up the primary development work,” continued Schriever, “the first model version of the Flugkreisel was completed on June 2,1942. Driven by tiny rockets, it flew a day later, and we were all delighted by its aerial performance. However, I was only able to achieve actual construction of a full-scale model in Prague. The diameter of the first Flying Saucer, if you want to call it that, was 14.4 meters. The flight characteristics were mind boggling: Vertical Start and Landing, Hovering in the air, and a maximum speed of around 4000 kilometers an hour!“ After a brief pause, the inventor declares: “Had we been able to continue in 1945, flying saucers would be as common a sight in the skies of Germany as hot buns in a bread basket.”

* At first the whole story sounds great, but it has its stumbling blocks. If Schriever was THE revolutionary inventor in aviation, why was he not brought to the US under Project Paperclip? Even if his valuable supporting papers were stolen in 1945, why does he still have to agitate for his project in 1952 (seven years later), and why are his devices not already flying around as a superior plane? Why did Schriever not accept any offers, he would have been a ‘self-made man’. And, why, in these days of increased Cold War tensions, has no Secret Service kidnapped him, if he invented such a revolutionary plane? In these hard times of the spiraling arms race ruled by the aviation motto ’Higher, Further, Faster’, the secret services of both east and west are not delicate in their methods. His original plans were stolen – but if he was involved from day one with the project, he would have been able to set them down on paper again within a short time. What, however, is circulating are rough sketches and not technical drawings. Also, the one-year time span between the first development work and the first flight is very short, if one considers the revolutionary new concepts, even extremely short.

Arthur Sack spent years with his ‘Kreisflügler’ but never got it airborne – and that is a with a relatively traditionally designed airplane! Where did the rocket drives come from, for which the Walter Company in Kiel even in 1944 had the greatest production problems in supplying them for the Rocket Interceptor Me-162 which carried the utmost priority? Even for an amateur, with some scientific background, the principles behind Schriever’s Flugkreisel are contradictory and by no means ‘basically simple’. This is the reason why even today, helicopters and airplanes run on two different ‘tracks’; no one to now has created a Hybrid.

What is the meaning of the ‘South America Connection’, which the Nazis used after the war to escape the judicial pursuit of the victorious Allies. Is this the reason for Schriever’s ‘disappointment and for his return to Germany? Maybe he was ‘undesired’ in South America? And he is now trying to make a name for himself in a defeated Germany with its modest aviation industry, to get a Job?

Former Fighter Pilot Is Constructor. Aircraft Factory In Bremen Wants To Build Flying Saucers. Bild of Hildesheim announced on 8.November 1952:

The first Flying Saucer has been registered for a patent. The constructor is 29 year old Wal­ter Schlieszke, a former fighter pilot. He told a Bild reporter that his invention has been fully built. Jagdflieger a.D. Walter Schlieszke lives in Nettlingen, in the Hildesheim area. With burning curiosity he pursued all newspaper reports about the flying saucers. When he could not sleep one night, the thought struck him of building such a flight apparatus himself. The next day he had drawing materials in front of him and began the arduous task of turning his plan into reality. For months he labored on his idea, constantly revising his designs, to finally achieve his goal. And Walter Schlieszke had the time since he is unemployed. One of the models demonstrated to us by the new inventor, shows a flattened cabin, mounted below eight windmill like air screws. These wings rotate within a circular frame and the steering mechanism is on both sides of the cabin. Strange as the model may appear, it was launched in our presence and reached a considerable height. The inventor smiled at seeing our amazed looks and said with hope: “I have the firm conviction that I will succeed.” Schlieszke lives in modest circumstances, with his wife and child in only a single room. Under these circumstances it wasnot always easy for the inventor to realize his bold plan. He hopes, however, to soon be able to surmount this misery. He expects, probably for good reason, that his trailblazing idea will soon be exploited. Before we took our leave, he made one more sensational announcement. Production of his ‘Luftroller’, as he calls his saucer, will begin within months. The editors of "Bild" learned shortly before publication of this story, an aircraft factory in Bremen has gotten in touch with the inventor. It wants to build the Luftroller. Financing is thus assured.

* Of course nothing more was ever heard about this story, but this report shows just how popular the Saucer Concept was at the time and how many otherwise unsuccessful inventors and hobbyists worked with ideas to develop it into a real flying device. It is therefore not surprising when in consequence there were numerous reports of Terrestrial Saucer inventions. There was a virtual race for the first Man-Made Flying Saucer.

A German ’Saucer’ the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung announced on 15.November 1952 in an exclusive report from Hamburg:

The 35 year old former German Flight Captain Rudolf Schriever of Bremerhaven has filed for a patent on a wingless elliptical flying machine he developed over eleven years of constructive work. It has a diameter of forty meters and can be powered by either jet or piston engines. According to the inventor, this German Saucer can take off and land vertically, so no runways are required. Furthermore, it can hover in midair and can, if necessary, sink safely to the ground without power. The maximum flight speed is claimed to be three times that of sound.

* This report makes the whole ’Af­fä­re Schrie­ver’ even more suspect. If the machine was already being build in the Forties, why is a patent in Germany only being applied for late in 1952? And what about Richard Mie­the in Tel Aviv, who supposedly accepted a concrete offer to build a Saucer from a US company back in June? Both announcements somehow do not mesh, especially in light of the already reported ’facts’. According to them, the ’Flugscheibe’ had the support of the Reichs­luft­fahrt-Mi­ni­ste­ri­um in 1942, which means, that a patent existed in Germany since that time. Following the Reparation Demands of the victorious Allies, any interested state could have availed themself. Why, suddenly now, eleven years of constructive work? That sounds as if he continued practical construction after the war, somehing never mentioned before.

"Saucers“ above East Germany – Firewheels Alarm the Citizenry – Cruiser Sunk in Seconds it read in the Fran­ken­post of Vienna on 3.February 1953:

The inhabitants of Pö­litz, that spot north of Stet­tin at the mouth of the Oder, were once again at five am on the dot, driven out of a sound sleep by ear-splitting howls, hisses and whistles. "This constant racket by these infernal Firewheels,“ curses Dora Niemann to her cobbler husband joining her at the window. "There they are again for the third time in five days hovering low in the air over the harbour, turning like crazy, banging and puffing as if ready to explode.“ Lately this observation is made especially frequently; from out of the east, silver, glittering flying disks of approximatelly 30 to 40 meters diameter approach with uncanny speed and in total silence to perform aerial manoeuvers over the Stettin harbour. These disc airplanes arouse rumours among the populace in Pö­litz and the surrounding area that they are the legendary 'Flying Saucers’, which in reality are remote controlled Russian aerial devices of a special construction.

Yet even despite the numerous eye witness sightings this claim found little credence until the Czech magazine Neue Tech­nik confirmed for the first time, the existence of such airplanes. "Experiments with remote controlled circular disk airplanes have proven successful,“ it stated. So far equipped only with measuring devices, these machines are gaining great influence in the development of air defence and civil aviatione as long distance weapons, fighter- and transport airplanes. The manoeuvers over Stettin and the harbour are only briefly covered by the Neue Tech­nik. "The observations made at the mouth of the Oder have nothing to do with the Saucer Psychoses in the West,“ the Czech magazine assures. "This concerns tests of the new defensive weapon. whose jet nozzles are only activated at heights under 300 meters. The flying machines,officially named Schei­ben­flug­zeu­ge' are expected to play a significant role in aviation by 1954. Militarily, their technic enable dominance of the skies with six times the climb rate of the fastest fighter plane. In engagements with enemy high sea fleets they are almost impossible to shoot down since they are equipped with anti-missile defences.“

The people of Pölitz, however, are firmly convinced that they know the secret of the Flying Saucers. They believe with all certainty that the often observed Fire Wheels are somehow related to the Flying Saucers. As soon as the hissing Fire Rings surrounding the Disc Airplanes, invisible in the bright glow, are extinguished, the glittery, silvery flying objects disappear within five seconds at a height beyond the range of the human eye. Observers, occasionally passing the island of Usedom in ships, claim to have seen, two or three times, the flying machines with turned off jets circling over the Bay of Pommer. With an eerie metallic hum, they race towards artillery targets and anchored moth-balled cruisers, virtually hanging in the air barely 100 meters above them, and ‘drill the target into the ground’ with a missile barrage.

* In this case, especially considering the historical view point, we are plainly dealing with an outright fabrication, causing us to ponder why it was brought into circulation. Was it a pure ‘Newspaper Canard’ or is there more behind it? Unfortunately we are unable to check the Czech source to ascertain that A. Neue Technik actually exists, B. that it published this report, and C. what it was based on. At that period of the Cold War there is also the possibility that Eastern Secret Services, with disinformation, wanted to spread counter propaganda for whatever reason – in all likelihood the ongoing rumor in the West about an American or Nazi Saucer.

A Real Flying Saucer? read a UP announcement from Toronto used by the Rhein-Neckar-Zei­tung on 14.February 1953: The local newspaper Toronto Star in a copyrighted article reported that the Canadian aircraft factory ‘Avro’ had designed a Flying Saucer which could take off vertically and achieve a speed of 2,300 kilometers an hour. The first test flights of a prototype would commence within two years. A gas turbine was to be used for propulsion.

The first "Flugscheibe" flew 1945 in Prague – reveals Speer’s Representative in the Welt am Sonntag of 26 April 1953 in an interview. The conversation took place between the science editor of the paper, Dr. Werner Keller, and Oberingenieur Georg Klein:

The news from Canada prove that the Flying Saucers are not the products of fantasy. As is evidenced here is that this development in aviation already commenced in Germany during the last war. The "Welt am Sonntag" introduces its readers to the German expert who was an eye witness to the first launch of a manned Flying Disc. He is Chief Engineer Georg Klein, former Special Advisor to the ‘Reichsministerium Speer’.

From your viewpoint has the present announcement of the construction of ‘Flying Saucers’ begun a new technical aviation development?

For the expert it is by no means a totally new development. Constructions of this type were developed, even in Germany, at least as trial projects during the last war. I, myself, was eye witness on 14 February 1945 in Prague to the first launch of a manned Flying Disc. This test machine reached a height of 12,400 meters within three minutes in take off and achieved a top speed of 2,200 km per hour in horizontal flight. Thus, in this experimental flight nearly double the speed of sound was reached. That may sound amazing, but in practical terms this Disc Type with its virtual ideal aerodynamic shape even speeds of 4,000km/hr or more are feasible.

Surely such high speeds will bring almost insurmountable difficulties with them?

The enormous speeds require special metal alloys; the metals used in conventional aircraft construction would melt from the heat of friction. Such an alloy was available. The launch in Prague was the result of research and development work begun in 1941 that swallowed millions in money. Towards the end of 1944 three different designs were ready. Two fundamentally different paths were taken, One type was developed by the noted V-Weapon Constructor Miethe; it consisted of a Discus-like non-rotating disc of 42 meters diameter. By contrast, with the designs of Habermohl and Schriever, a flat, wide ring turned around a stationary ball-shaped pilot’s cabin. This ring was sub-divided by many adjustable vanes making vertical take-off and landing possible.

What happened to the completed experimental machines and their builders?

In Prague the just tested disc and the machines still in the construction stage, including all plans, were destroyed by us shortly before the advance by the Soviets Into Breslau, however, a trial model of Miethe’s, as well as his closest associates fell into the Russian’s hands. There has been no trace of Habermohl and his two co-workers since the occupation of Prague. Schriever, who last lived near Bremen, has died a few weeks ago. I have been informed that Miethe, who left Prague at the last moment in a Me-163 and has, at spent some times in France, is now employed in the US.

Based on your experiences, are you of the opinion that the flying discs will have a decisive influence on future aviation development?

In light of the tremendous speeds that can be attained by this aeronauticl type one can well imagine that they could be big competition for commercial jet airliners. It would, of course be technically feasibly to easily build ‘Flying Saucers’ capable of carrying 30 - 50 passengers. With a speed of 4,000 km/hr a flight from Hamburg to New York would only last about 90 minutes. Such a construct would, however, be totally unprofitable since the disc would assume too large dimensions. My acquaintance, the Italian Constructor Prof. Giuseppe Beluzzo, is of the same opinion. The experiences gained in building Flying Saucers, however, open up outstanding opportunities of small personal aircraft. In the US, helicopters have already begun to be used as ‘Air-Taxis’. It is the goal of large concerns like Sikorski und Hiller to make miniature helicopters ‘Flying Cars’ for everyone. As contrasted to a helicopter the Flying Disc does possess great advantages. Much greater speeds can be achieved, and, decisively coupled with greater air safety. The plans for such discs are already drawn up. That they have not been idle in the East, is evidenced, in my eyes, by recent American reports out of Korea. UN fighting forces there, only a few days ago observed several flying discs.

Canada is Building ‘Saucer” Airplanes/Still in the Trial Stages – British Air Force Shows Great Interest was reported by the  London correspondent of the Rhein-Neckar Zeitung on April 29, 1953:

The Avro Canada Aircraft Company in Malton near Toronto is currently building a new aircraft; it asserts it will totally revolutionize all aviation construction. All other types of airplanes with supersonic speed will be made obsolete,” declared the 'Toronto Daily Star', which recently featured a description of the new ‘Disc Wing’. Its outer shape conforms to the anticipation of the ominous ‘Flying Saucers’, and its speed of 2,500 km/h is to far exceed that of the fastest supersonic plane.

The British Air Ministry, to date, has not confirmed any of the Toronto Star’s claims.

There has so much been written about Flying Saucers, sensational and fantastic, in the last few years that this publication by the Toronto Star would hardly have raised any attention, had not a noted magazine like the Royal Air Force Review picked up on the story in its last edition. That magazine states that very real reasons exist to employ a more plate shaped design in the construction of airplanes with double the speed of sound speed., since it offers an acceptable solution to the decisive problem of air resistance. “In theory at least,” writes the Royal Air Force Review, “the ‘Plate’ is functional. The Avro Canada Project is thus of great significance, and could bring the dreams of constructors one step closer to realization.”  

According to the description by the Toronto Star, the aircraft has a nearly circular shape, ‘nearly’ means that one segment of the circle has been cut off. In this flat area the jet exhausts are arrayed. From that can be seen that the ‘Plate’ will not spin around its own axis. The revolutionary construction consists of the application of the gyration effect of the rotating gas turbine engines in stabilizing the airplane. It is claimed that the plane can execute 180 degree turns without changes in altitude. The diameter of the ‘Plate’ is estimated at about 13 meters. The vertical launch is to accomplished by a starting device with the aid of additional rockets. Nothing has been said about landing; it is assumed that a ‘belly-flop’ is planned as the normal landing procedure. Further details of the new construction are not available. It is not believed that test flights have been carried out.

As fantastical as the project may appear – the interest of the Royal Air Force Review in the Canadian endeavors is at least evidence that (for the first time?) we are dealing with a construction of a ‘Flying Saucer’ that can be taken seriously.

Meantime the concepts became international. The I Vra­dy­ni of Athens reported on May 13, 1953 about Georg Klein’s claims, that while with the Ministry of Albert Speer, he had a seen a Flying Saucers test flown. We know of this based on an Information Report (Nr.00-W-27452) of August 18, 1953, which the CIA gathered under the subject ‘Military - Unconventional Aircraft’ from foreign documents and broadcasts and filed as ‘Unconfirmed Information’. In the newspaper edition the names Habermohl, Schriever , Miethe and Belluzzo are cited – but set off in square brackets in the CIA Report as ‘Unidentified’.

The Secret of the Legendary Flying Objects Lifted. ‘Flying Saucers’ exist. – Small squadrons launched since 1947 – West and East in Competition – Preliminary Work Done by Germans was reported by Martin Bethke on  January 11; 1954 in the Kasseler Zeitung:

What is not yet clear to the reading public has long left the area of Military News Services and is accepted as reality by the Staff of Air Forces, with which aerial as well as ground troops must be familiarized. The mysterious, legendary Flying Objects which the common man, half mocking –half naïve- calls ‘Flying Saucers’ do exist. They are devices under Russian control, developed in the Soviet Union. It is interesting that the theoretical, as well as practical/scientific preliminary work is based on German ideas, although decades old. It is unknown if since 1944 –likely the decisive development year- one can talk of a scientific and technical construction co-ordination. It appears the, renowned Soviet Air Marshall Alexander A. Nawikow was responsible for construction and experimentation at that time. He has, in the meantime, been declared ‘politically unreliable’ and sent for 15 years hard labour in a Ural coalmine. Currently, the relatively young and unknown outside of the Soviet Union, Air Marshall Werschinin is Chief of this Research and Development Branch.

Since 1947 the first reports of eye witnesses started coming in. According to the available investigations of the news bureaus, at that time the first small squadron must have been launched. Since about 1950 all reports were taken seriously, and since 1952 the western world has solved the basics of ‘Flying Saucers’, that is to say – Flying Objects with unusually fast rate of sped of flying and climbing - that can hover, yet suddenly rise or fall , veer and change direction. It is claimed that at the Roe factory in Toronto, Canada, aerial devices are under construction whose shape approaches the picture of Flying Saucers, and from ground level appear like the outline of the Greek letter Omega. This type has thus acquired this as its working name. This recent announcement gains in credibility when one hears of the various official directives to the American, British, and Canadian Air Forces. For instance, 75 American military airfields received stereoscopic cameras to film suddenly appearing Flying Saucers.

 [This did not happen since Project ‘Gateway Camera’ was never realized due to costs]

In London it was confirmed that the puzzling flying objects appeared on radar screens and were even photographed. 95% of the appearances are attributed to natural phenomena or optical illusions; however, the remaining 5% are cause for concrete official notice. Just last December, in Sweden incontrovertible observations were once again made, and there are also reports from the American Pacific Fleet. The Soviet assertion from a few years ago, that the first Spacecrafts that would reach an alien planet would be Russian ones, or even that Space Stations were being planned, is no longer considered mere bragging.

The principle underlying the Flying Saucers was already seen in the theories of the ‘Blocking Rays’, developed some decades ago by the late German Engineer Levetzow. Their practical value was apparently recognized by a Reichswehr Officer, Horst Pinkel who, after the collapse of German-Russian military co-operation, did not return to Germany. This theory realized that there are a tremendous number of rays in outer space, exerting forces on all bodies to make them practically weightless. The planets, however, developed a ‘Ray Shadow’, by which bodies are not attracted but pushed by the external power of the rays.

[This whole thing is plain and simple physical nonsense and may have originated in a childish brain caught up in an utopian delirium. – the public is being taken in by empty words]

The problem was in search of a solution; how to increase or decrease the influence of the rays, direct them according to need. Apparently there was success and an unimaginable source of power was unlocked. If it is true, that the Russians have longer experience, but the West has finally made inroads into the discoveries (in Canada it is said to be an American/British/Canadian co-operation) then a lively contest is to be expected, in which the greater technical powers is vying with superior experience. The layman can not know if the ‘Flying Saucers’ can truly turn science fiction into reality, but that the mysterious Flying Objects are reality can be safely assumed.

[Pure wishful thinking on the part of the author. who is engaging in a ‘fairytale hour’ and leading the public astray]

Riddle of the ‘Flying Saucers Solved? Repatriated Aviation Engineer Reports About Flying Disk Objects of the Russians was announced by the Badischen Neuesten Nachrichten on 12 January 1954, under the by-line of Robert von Bergfelde from Augsburg:

After eight years of labour for the Russians, in factory sites south of Kasalinsk on the Ural Sea in Siberia, only designated by numbers, the former Dr. Ing. Wilhelm St. of the German Junkers Aircraft Works has come home. Once there he tore up the carbon copy of the oath of secrecy he had given the Russians. ”I do not feel tied by enforced promises,” he said. “After all, in 1945, they took me from my last place of employment in the Soviet Zone to work in Siberia. I am in the position to talk about the most secretive aircraft construction project the whole world has heard about.” Already back in 1947, the German airplane constructor, who up to then had participated in work on improving the Soviet MIG, was brought to the area of Kasalinks. Russian specialists there, told the three groups totaling 174 German professional workers, that is to say, leading engineers and scientists, that they would be working on a Disk Aircraft with gyrating jet propulsion. To make any kind of espionage and the chance of gaining insight into the total project, the Russians inserted Soviet ‘Professional Couriers’ between the three research groups. The Germans, themselves, only knew their own particular section of the work. “Nevertheless,” reported Dr. Ing. St. now, “it slowly seeped through that we were working on COW 7, the most secret aircraft in the world, as the Russians, themselves, asserted. They openly admitted that their first six construction attempts were failures. When the first Disc Jetfighters were ready to launch, final assembly was carried out by the Soviets and they were hidden from our view. Of course, this method of secretiveness was fairly naïve for the involved German scientists but was second nature for the Russians."

Naturally it was unsuccessful to keep the result of their segregated work from the Germans; by 1951 the Russians gave up on not letting the Germans watch by sending them into the cellars. From some kilometers away, they observed round flying objects rise up vertically and, in about ten seconds, reach a height beyond the range of the human eye. Twelve circular jets propelled them. Their rate of ascent was said to be 1,000 km/h, their horizontal cruising speed 1,500 km/h. Forward movement is achieved by gyration of the Discus principle, where the constantly increasing speed of rotation is, through a special construction, employed to further increase the velocity. “Unfortunately, in all the years of our forced scientific labour, we never discovered if COW 7 consisted of two independently functioning parts. I, myself, worked on the special cabin of reinforced and clarified quartz glass, and installed reinforcements in ball bearing embedded rails, which indicated a rotation of the outer disc around its own axis. I am almost convinced, that the four passenger flight deck remains stationery while the ring shaped propulsion unit of the COW 7 spins with tremendous speed around the center and focus of the new aircraft. I hope that together with my colleagues – we have a May meeting planned in Augsburg – can clear up all still open questions and find the trail of the rest of the secret.” – The German aircraft constructors, by the way, only said and did what was absolutely necessary for self-preservation, declares Dr. Ing. St. They also did not succumb to the temptations of pretty Russian women, who were often send to their barracks, and tried, with the ‘Weapons of a Woman’ to draw out everything from the German

Do the Soviets Possess Flying Saucers? A Fantastic Report from the Soviet Zone Verifies the Observation of Swedish Pilots reported the magazine 7 Tage in its  January 22, 1954 edition:

Various witness reports from the US indicate that aircraft of a hereto unknown kind, called ‘Flying Saucers’ by the public, were in fact observed. For the first time, the same kind of witness reports are coming to the fore in Europe. We reproduce the following story with full reservations. If it is true, however, everything then points to the conclusion that the Soviets have at their disposal aircraft which closely resemble those of the ‘Flying Saucers Phenomena’.

"Two Swedish pilots during a flight over southern Sweden, saw ‘Something’ at an altitude of 1,600 meters, shaped like a saucer, that flew by them in the opposite direction with a speed of about 1,000 km/h, and which both pilots could observe for the space of seven seconds. The pilots are Flight Captain Ulf Christiernsson and Flight Technician Olof Johansson. They were manning a DC-3 machine and were on a flight back to Stockholm. Both saw the mystic It in broad daylight, at 3 pm, while in the area of Hässleholm on December 17, 1953. The pilots were cruising at a speed of 280 km/h at an altitude of about 2,150 meters. Immediately upon landing at Bromma, the Stockholm Airport, they gave a thorough report. Thorough investigations have since been carried out in Sweden. Nothing positive has been established. What the two flyers saw remains in the dark for the time being."

This as an addendum is NOT true. The event has already been definitely identified as a wayward advertising balloon from a transport company.

It is worth noting in this case, that the Swedish Air Force excluded a conventional airplane and fumbled in the dark because of the lack of an escaped advertising balloon, and thus inclined towards the UFO theory. The independent solution of a wayward advertising balloon shows that even the Military can be fooled and is unable to always provide answers in such situations. Similar was the reaction of the Belgian General Staff to the UFO wave of 1989, where unnecessary and unanticipated confusion about video films of night time aircraft and radar sightings also, wrongfully, provoked a tendency towards am UFO interpretation.

If it has been investigated by the military, and they have no answers, it is by no means the end of the story. There can still be completely banal and plausible explanations for the biggest UFO mysteries. The history of Ufology and its flops is filled with such examples – although the Ufology promoters do not like to talk about them, since it will become quickly evident that the claimed identifications built on concrete are in reality card houses standing on quick sand.

We would not have given this event the space we devoted to it, if the large Swedish evening newspaper Aftonbladet had not reported on this subject what may be of general interest. 'ftonbladet declares it has received this report from a completely reliable source, but passes it on with all reservations. The report originates from a person living in the East Zone. The source insists that another eye witness is known, but this eye witness is also an East German and is currently being diligently searched for by the Russian Police. The source could not tell Aftonbladet where this eye witness is residing at this time.

"During the period of 19–26 July 1953, in a series of cities along the Polish-German border, especially near the Stettinger Haff and the Odermündung, unique flying phenomena of rounded shape have been observed. They usually flew in groupsof six or more, moved very rapidly and made quick turns. Usually they were seen in early dawn or late twilight. Police bureaus received reports of these mystic phenomena, among them the police in Odraport, Kolberg und Stettin. Although the reports were at first received with great interest, the police bureaus suddenly changed their attitude and after 20 July told the applicants they had apparently imagined something. Stubborn observers, who declared they knew exactly what they saw, were told they would be arrested for spreading false rumours if the told of their sightings to others. From 26–29 July no sky phenomena were visible. Then from 29 July till 1 August they were seen again, the –let us call them Airplanes."

Aftonbladet’s source further reports that on 31 July around 5 pm, one of these mystic aircrafts landed on a rural road between Miedzyzaraje und Wollin. The landing occurred with great noise and was observed by seven people working in a nearby field; five Poles and two Germans. Since the plane seemed to be crashing nearly vertically, they all ran quickly to the site. The aircraft was circular and its diameter was given as between 15-20 meters. It was constructed completely of metal and had a spherical center that was completely closed off. This sphere was surrounded by a ring containing exhaust pipes as seen on World War One planes. No engine could be seen. There was no movement from the interior to be felt and no sound to be heard. None of the seven dared approach the plane, but they saw writing on the sphere they took to be Russian letters. After some time a Polish police officer arrived, saw what the seven had seen, and rushed off to make a report at his station. While the policeman was away, one of the Germans separated himself from the group and immediately left the locale. Further, it is reported, after a while a helicopter of Russian origin landed beside the mystic plane, whereupon the whole area was sealed off by the police. The six witnesses and the police officer were taken into custody. No one has heard anything of them since.

The area was sealed off for a whole week and after 10 August no more mystic aircraft showed themselves. Now an ‘It’ described the same as told here has been observed over southern Sweden by two pilots. Something, in any case, that does not fit within the framework of hereto known aerial machines must exist. Has the US Air Force test flown such secret constructions (Washington says NO) or have the Soviets further developed a German invention? Or is it really all about messengers from other planets?

Thus far the magazine – the article, by the way, was also accompanied by a sketch, to illustrate quite fancifully as well as dramatically the Swedish case of the “Mysterious Flying Machine’. The report of the Swedish magazine can be easily dismissed as unconfirmed propaganda rumour, building on the just circulating V-7 legend and was maybe disseminated (if not made up outright by a Swedish desk jockey) to attribute technical wonder weapons to the Soviets which they did not possess. It is possible (but unfortunately once again there are no observer details quoted) this rumour could have a true basis if one considers that the mentioned area was the Baltic Sea, ruled by the Warsaw Pact, and military exercises may have taken place which would be kept secret from the local populace. During such maneuvers signal flares etc. could have been employed, creating unusual sky displays in the twilight – similar to the Case Greifswald of 1990.

The Secret of the Flying Saucers: The Miracle Disc of John Frost/Canada’s Wonder Saucers are Really Flying/Ingenious Construction read the headlines of 7 Tage for 12-18 April 1954:

We are continuing our report about the greatest secret of our days, the so called ‘Flying Saucers’. In our last edition we covered the view point of the American Major Keyhoe, who believes they are messengers from other planets, and that of the Researcher Donald Menzel who takes them to be natural aerial phenomena. The fact is, that these strange plate and disc like aerial vehicles do exist and fly!

The testing field of the Canadian aircraft factory, A.V. Roe in Malton near Toronto has recently been locked down. Neither journalists nor press photographers or airplane fans as spectators have the slightest possibility of approaching the airfield. In spite of all precautions some things have leaked out of the strange flying model of the young Chief Engineer of the Avro Company, John Frost, a former co-worker of Sir Frank Whittle, the inventor of the jet propulsion system. It is said to be a Flying Saucer, but not one of the formerly described ones, where the plate in furious rotation turns around its own axis, and where the pilot’s gondola hangs in the center. If someone curious with the eye of an expert could cast a glance into the smallest hall on the edge of the Malton airfield, he would see a plate like grey object with a diameter of no more than 3 meters, with a rounded canopy of Plexiglas covering the pilot’s seat. The circular disc is cut off on one side as if by a large knife, and shows on this side an array of little boxes resembling the enlarged grid of a car’s radiator. At both sides of this flat area tubes are visible that appear like exhaust pipes. We are approaching the use of these tubes now - they are nothing but the outlets of ramjet pipes which are replacing jet engines in the most modern airplanes. They are back draft motors, which suck in air in front, drive it through a turbine and compress it in the combustion chamber, from which it is expelled through these pipes at a great velocity, thereby thrusting the flying object forward. A kind of Jetfighter without fuselage or wings. Or, better said, both merged into an almost circular area, a further development of the Delta Wing, without a nose or a tail. John Frost has come to the conviction: If something New, then radically new. He eliminated the landing gear, the rear stabilizers and all moveable parts of former maneuvering devices – saying the model would haThe first test flights are behind it now, the Frost Plate - it flies by Telemeter remote control like the American Matador bomber. The pilot sits safe and sound in his room and follows the flight from the start on build-in TV and radar screens. The aerial techniques of this Plate in no manner resemble that of the claimed Flying Saucers. There is no rotation of the round disc around its own axis. The Plate stays in its normal configuration driven forward by the ramjets. The pilot’s seat is surrounded by the propulsion systems. That is everything that has leaked out. One difficulty for the technicians is still the launch and landing of this unusual aircraft. It is rumoured in Malton that John Frost first tried rotor wings similar to the ones on the American All-Purpose Plane XV-1 which starts and lands like a helicopter with rotating air blades and can reach high speeds at the desired altitude with a turbo propeller. But with the anticipated speed of the John Frost Plate of 2,400 km/h in the full-sized version of 14 meters diameter. Helicopter blades would be shredded by air resistance. Frost came up with a different solution. Like a jet plane starts on the runway from the backwards thrust of its jets, a plate shaped plane could start without landing gear. The back thrust must only be directed downwards and it would lift off. Landing would be accomplished in a similar fashion. The ramjets would direct their thrust downwards and thus act as a brake. Take-off and landing could be done from the spot without a runway, practically without an airfield. Until now, Frost’s construct is still a secret with A.V. Roe of Malton; even the neighbouring Americans seem to know little about it. Industrial espionage, however, must be very active.

If new ‘Flying Saucers’ appear, they will certainly be John Ford’s Flying Plates now. These disc airplanes are not unmanned, they are remote controlled. Their advantage lies in the fact, that due to their enormous speed even the best line of Flak defence would be unable to shoot them down. They can be used for long distance reconnaissance over enemy lines, or, if the tests by the Canadians are successful, as carriers of high explosives. For reconnaissance it is extremely advantageous that with their downward adjustable jets they can hover over targets of interest and make their observations. As bomb transport the construction is commendable, since being unmanned it can carry considerable larger weights of ordinance than a manned and loaded down with defensive armour airplane. Should, against expectations, such a flying disc be hit by a chance shot of Flak, it will crash vertically and be, without a doubt, shattered so thoroughly on the ground that the enemy will not be able to make any decisive insights from the remaining pieces. The best proof of that is that in December 1944, a British Fleet Command on Spitzbergen, which served as main outpost for the allied convoys to Murmansk at the time, found the remains of a flying disc, whose construction remains a puzzle to the British and Canadians to this day. This Spitzbergen Disc was the first ‘Flying Saucer in the World’ in practice. Where this disc originated, who constructed it, and what hopes its inventors pinned on it, is one of the last secrets of the Second World War. We will solve this riddle in our next issue.This high flying article was accompanied by some futuristic graphics. A room stuffed with computers and tracking devices was shown, in which apparently, the Plates of Mr. Frost could be remote controlled with complicated instruments. By means of a cross sectional, a modern ram-jet tube was introduced. Another graphic showed the lift-off of a Flying Plate and another drawing conveyed the impression of a Frost Plate moving through the air.

Germans invented ‘Flying Saucers’ – Constructed as a Secret Weapon during World War Two, But Never Put Into Service read the headline of 7 Tage in its edition for the period 19-25 April 1954: 

Today we conclude our factual series on the history of the so-called Flying Saucers. In our last edition we published special information about the current attempts in Canada by the engineer John Frost. Today we can report that these Canadian constructions are based on an invention made in the last years of war in Germany, but which is also known to the Russians, and now the Americans as well. Among the numerous projects submitted to the former Reichsluftfahrtministerium in the year 1941 was a suggestion for the construction of so-called flying discs. It was really only the logical continuation of a series of ideas which led from the usual airplanes, that no longer could meet the demands for higher speed due to their air resistance, to the Nur-Flügel Plane (of the Brothers Horten) and on to the Flying Disc. Just as there is an enormous difference between the distance traveled by a ball shot-putted by an athlete and a discus hurled by the same athlete, a barely causing air resistance disc would be faster than any plane before.

In April of 1941 Göring ordered the first trials to be undertaken. Beside the construction of the so-called V Weapons, which was mostly carried out in Peenemünde, some specialists began to concern themselves with the problem of the Flying Disc. In Eger Testpilot Rudolf Schriever, who died under mysterious circumstances in the last year, build his Flugkreisel (about which we already reported in previous editions).

[Strangely enough, in the same magazine it originally said that Schriever while with BMW in Prague pursued his construction at a private hobby and recreation concern in total secrecy! As well, we are suddenly dealing with a completely different technical design with a flying object that is also very different visually different, as will become apparent shortly!]

At the same time, unrelated, a second project, under the auspices of Speer’s Ministry was running in Breslau near Prague – the so-called Miethe Flying Disc. It is the predecessor of the so-called ‘Flying Saucers’. It was originally planned primarily as a long distance bomber; it was in fact, once fully developed, to serve in bombing US armaments centers from Germany. For that a remote controlled disc of about 42 meters was intended, powered by jet turbines.

[How was the remote control and aiming to happen in an unmanned plane when the telemetry of that time could not even imagine a satellite supported navigation system? Even a supersonic plane guided by an optical camera system must be constantly regulated, that is to say, controlled – and even for that a satellite based control system was totally lacking. Simple radio wave surveillance and guidance is already useless beyond the horizon] 

The Flying Saucer build during 1944 and into 1945 in Breslau and Prague had a control cabin not in the middle of the disk [anymore] but somewhat eccentrically towards the back [!] to free up the middle for the so called Stabilization Gyro. Twelve turbine drives are distributed evenly around the circumference of the disk [and now stationary mounted!]  During forward flight only the turbines 8 to 12 are activated [suddenly making the rotating Wreath Principle, which was always claimed to be as a new technological advance for this kind of vehicle, disappear!] The lateral [solidly fixed] turbines serve in carrying out the jerky maneuvers typical in all previous observations of ‘Flying Saucers’, the sudden turns right or left, like no regular airplane can perform without being broken up by air resistance. To allow the flying disc to hover above an observation or bombing target the turbine thrusts are directed downwards [here is the beginning of the VTOL principle for normal stream lined traditional air planes – the solitary insight into aeronautical future in this whole story]. By decreasing the thrust the disk slowly sinks to the ground.

The most difficult problem, as with all cutting edge construction, so with the Flying Disks, was starting and landing. The first attempts were made using a relatively short, inclined runway, since a direct vertical launch was of course impossible with these non-rotating stationery disks due to the high air resistance [this is a totally new start maneuver, one never outlined so explicitly previously!] In this manner, in April 1945, shortly before the collapse, one of these disks was launched and sent on a remote controlled test flight. For, up to now, inexplicable reasons, the remote control malfunctioned: the disk never returned to Breslau but disappeared without a trace. Only years later could this secret be resolved. The disk had landed on Spitzbergen and shattered on impact. British Commando troops, who had landed there to safeguard the important supply route to Murmansk, retrieved the crash remains of the flying object.

[The ‘real’ Spitzbergen story sounds totally different] 

Flying Saucer Landed on Spitzbergen – The Riddle Finally Solved? – “Silver Disk with Plexiglas Cabin Cover and 46 Circular Jets” – Soviet Origin? read the Saarbrücker Zeitung out of Narvik on June 28, 1952, written by a certain J.M.M.:

Norwegian Jetfighters had just begun their annual summer maneuvers over Spitzbergen.....

[Here it is Norwegian, not British troops that found the flying disk, also not in 1945 but only in 1952! There is not even agreement on that point!]

In co-operation with the Canadian Air Force and the Avro factory the construction of the flying disk was carefully investigated, but only after the collapse did the Canadian experts find out from the mouth of a German engineer the exact details of the Flying Disk. The metal alloy required to survive the heat of friction caused by the enormous speeds was also unknown to them

Despite feverish efforts [this is NOT historically confirmed] in the factories of Prague and Breslau, the last secret weapon of the Third Reich was not brought into action due to the relentless collapse of the Eastern Front. While in Prague the factories and parts constructions there could still be blown up. In Breslau’s subterranean halls some plans and likely an almost completed model fell into Russian hands. It may well be the antecedent of the mysterious machines about whose appearance in the last few months, eye witnesses from the Soviet Zone and Sweden have reported. Since two co-workers of the German constructor Miethe in Breslau were captured and have not returned to date to Germany, it can be assumed that they are working on further finishing touches of this aviation construction there.
Miethe, himself, who managed to flee from Breslau at the last moment [the similarity to Schriever’s odyssey is striking here – while, for instance the top heads of V-1 and V-2 were throughout cashiered by the Americans] fled first in his private plane to the Near East, even put himself at the disposal of the French and, according to credible testimony, is said to be employed in the US under a false name since some months ago. It can be assumed he can utilize his knowledge and experiences with the German Sky Disk in the construction of the American Flying Saucers. If these new flying objects could have played a decisive role in the Second World War if their mass production had been successful, remains an open question. As participants in the air battles they would hardly have had a role. Defensive armament would have been possible, but of little practical need, since with the already achieved speed of well over 2,000 km/h accurate enemy aim was scarcely possible in any case. Without a doubt, the Flying Disks would have been far more valuable as a long distance bomb delivery system [this is an analogy to the miracle weapon V-2, which, however, had only a limited range and could not reach the States]. Their radius of effectiveness is almost unlimited [something the V-2 lacked], since once they brought up to top speed, at altitudes of over 10,000 meters, they can bridge gigantic distances in a sort of gliding flight. With the right improvements of the first models, without a doubt the potential to bomb even important armaments centers in US with remote controlled German Flying Disks [rockets] could have existed. Likewise, the prime mission of the Flying Disks, build in the US, in Canada, and in the Soviet Union, would well be to deliver high explosives [maybe Atom Bombs] to enemy targets. With their enormous speed and aerial agility, these Flying Disks, during an actual war situation, would present the enemy defenses with almost insoluble challenges [just as the V-2 did].

We conclude our series on the 'Mystery of the Flying Saucers' with these assertions. We believe we have put the mysterious hints that it involves messengers from other worlds decisively to rest. Flying Saucers exist. And their first constructers were – Germans!


This article was accompanied by a sketch - a side view of the fantastical Miethe Flying Disk, built in Breslau and Prague according to claims. In a ridiculous fashion, from the flight deck dome [well-known as being a Plexiglas cupola] there is even a retractable periscope emerging, which is insane, because in a military action it is not the airspace above that is of interest, but the targets on the ground below!

Die Rheinische Post of 31 July 1954 announced under Paul Zugowski’s by-line "Saucers’ and No End in Sight:

Currently an investigating committee of the Norwegian Army High Command is preparing a publication of the report about the testing of the materials remaining of a of a ‘Flying Saucer’ that is claimed to have crashed on Spitzbergen some little time ago. The head of the committee, Colonel Gernod Darnhyl, during a briefing session for Air Force Officers explained: The Spitzbergen crash was very revealing, although it is posing some still unanswered questions for our science. I am, however, sure they will be solved by the salvaged pieces from Spitzbergen. Most importantly, at the time a misunderstanding arose when it was said the Flying Disk Object was likely of Soviet origin. It is – we must admit it – not build in any country of this world. Its materials are totally unknown to al examining experts, either not found on Earth or only possible after physical and chemical processes which we do not know.

Then a further report from Oslo…Landing in the Siberian Tundra: A sensational announcement told of the Swedish freighter ‘Smoken’ which after being lost in the fog in the Siberian Ice within Russian jurisdiction, took three Russian escapees on board. They turned out to be three engineers who had fled from a restricted zone where, it is claimed, flying objects of hereto unknown construction were being build. Daily, it is said, up to 20 disc shaped flying machines are started up, launch vertically like shots into the stratosphere, landing several hours later as glowing Fire Disks in the Tundra. According to the report of the Russian engineers, the flying objects can carry 300-800 passengers. Their average speed is 7,000 km/h. German constructors, again according to the report, are decisively involved in the development of the flying machines.

‘Flying Saucers’ Still a Riddle – A Lecture in Schwetzingen on this Subject was the headline in the Rhein-Neckar Zeitung on 16 September 1954 with an article by an assigned reporter:

“Do Flying Saucers Exist?”

That was the current exciting subject addressed on Tuesday by the Secretary of the Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung [Association for Space Exploration], Erich Steude (Karlsruhe) during a scheduled lecture evening by the Luftwaffenring e.V., Ortsverband Schwetzingen und Umgebung at the "Welde Bräu" in Schwetzingen. The ‘UFOs”, Unidentified Flying Objects – the official designation for the ‘Flying Saucers’ – raise so many questions that for now there can only be speculation about their origin and their intentions. Erich Steude believes in the existence of ‘Flying Saucers’. There are just too many sighting reports by serious observers that their existence can be denied and put down to harmless flying objects, possibly for meteorological exploration. [In fact there is a broad spectrum of stimuli that can be mistaken for UFOs, not just meteorological exploration balloons]. A mass deception of such an extent seems to be as well as eliminated.

Their origin is inexplicable, unless one is of the opinion that the UFOs are of alien origin. That is the stand also held by Erich Steude, a view point based on the observation of unknown flying objects already 75 years ago, before there was any aviation activity from Earth. [It would have been more convincing than this meaningless statement, if a concrete event was cited to support this assertion]. Little can be said about their appearance and mode of propulsion. So far it only seems certain that we are dealing with aerial objects flying by the ‘Flying Top Principle’ [where does this man get this self assurance from?] and thereby reach the enormous speed of 40,000 - 60,0000 km/h [Proofs?] They can also hover in midair – flying like insects, while we on earth have only mastered ‘bird flight’. [Here one runs into the danger of reducing all differing parameters of totally divergent objects that can be classed as UFOs, to an all encompassing total phenomenon, where, suddenly, the UFOs have miraculous abilities. This is the central problem of the whole UFO discussion, the trap most UFOlogists fall into without logical thinking].

Of interest was the analogy the speaker drew between these ‘UFOs’ and our own, especially German, accomplishments. For instance, the V-2 rocket (scientific name A-IV Rocket) flew with one and half times the speed of sound, reaching a top altitude of 140 kilometers. The German Professor Sänger developed, during the war, an airplane with rocket propulsion that was to circumnavigate the globe at an altitude of 300 kilometers with a speed of 22,000 km/h. Thus, even our own research already has reached unimagined borders of aviation.

Still, the ‘UFO’s’ raise many unsolved problems, which seem to defy all known aerodynamic laws. Who is controlling these flying objects? Is it Insects or insect-like life forms that know the answer to the question of ‘insect flight’? Do they come from the Moon, Mars, Venus, or Jupiter, or one of its moons? Are they driven by Ultrasound? All questions [which need not be asked] for which there are yet no answers. But, perhaps, we shall find them in Outer Space some day. The problem of space travel has long been solved in theory. In this connection, Erich Steude points to the famous project of Wernher von Braun who considers voyages to the Moon or Mars to be entirely feasible with the aid of Space Stations. Professor Sänger even thinks it is even possible to achieve speeds of 98% of the speed of light with a ‘Light Rocket’. The trip ‘Earth to Mars’ would then only take an hour! For now we are left with theories and speculations [mostly the latter], but who knows if in the near future we will not know more about all the questions relating to the ‘Flying Saucers’.

 The Riddle of the Flying Saucers Solved? asked the correspondent Paul Pereszlény of Zürich in the Stuttgarter Zeitung of September 23, 1954:

Seldom have reports exited the world’s populace as much as the ones about the Flying Saucers. Currently the 'Züricher Tagesanzeiger' has just published an interview with Oberingeneurf Engineer Georg Klein, who was ‘Sonderbeauftragter of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium’and thus had insights into secret research work. He reports plans for Flying Saucers were made in Germany during the Second World War. Three constructors worked on them, one of whom, Engineer Schriever who died a year and a half ago in Bremen. The second was the Italian Turbine Engineer Belluzo, who also died about two years ago. The third constructor, however, Miethe is still alive and, it is assumed, residing in the United States. It is, therefore, by no means a misplaced assumption to think that the Flying Saucers are being produced there. For that the order of the American Air Force Command also provides further evidence – Not to shoot at Flying Saucers [wrong, this has a different reason – one does not shoot at observed flying objects as long as they show no hostile intent]. Chief Engineer Klein, who also produced design plans, provided the following explanation. There are currently two types in use; one with a diameter of 16 meters, the other with one of 42 meters. That is the reason for the situation that observers saw at times big, other times small Saucers in the sky. Work on constructing the flying objects commenced in 1942, with the actual experimental flights taking place two years later. An unmanned remote controlled flying disk, built during the trial period in Peenemünde, and which flew from Stettin, crashed on Spitzbergen [this ‘event’ is an outright invention of a German journalist, presented only recently].

If one throws a disk, it flies much further through the air, with the same expenditure of energy than a ball. Disks are more suitable for extreme speeds than airplanes with a fuselage. The flying disk is divided into narrow wing segments, driven like a rotating disk by several jet pipes, to circle around a cupola. If one wants to ascend, the wing segments are adjusted a few degrees, and the whole machine rises, similar to a helicopter, into the air. Once at a desired height, to fly in a straight line, the wings are flattened, to form a plate [this sounds very nice and superficially plausible, is, in our opinion, nothing less than aerodynamic misrepresentation and total nonsense in an aviation design]. The plate is then further propelled by activating two large jet assemblies, whose thrust is regulated by controlling the dosage of fuel. In contrast to regular airplanes, these flying disks are not steered by stabilizers and rudders, but with the adjustment of the direction of the jet assemblies. To hover, the jets of the larger flying disks must be swiveled vertically downwards, and their thrust regulated so it just barely prevents sinking to the ground [here the VTOL principle is brought in as a decisive point]. The disk emits fiery exhausts of variegated colours, as has been observed repeatedly. The maneuverability of such disks far exceeds that of normal planes, so that to a distant observer it appears, at times, they can change their course at right angles.

The possibility that humans can withstand speeds of several thousand kilometers per hour exists since the introduction of pressurized cabins, which are also required for passenger planes at very high altitudes. In the flying disks, as well, people are thoroughly protected from external influences by special pressurized cabins. [Air pressure is one thing, but tremendous acceleration forces in a gravity field are something different altogether, which is why, even today, the crews of Ultra High Tech Airplanes need their own life support systems. About this nothing is said by ‘Herr Oberingenieur’ – no wonder, since at that time these forces had little meaning for civil as well as military aviation. Supersonic speed was just being researched and approached with caution. The German Flying Disk, however, was said to have already exceeded that mythic limit back in 1944, if we believe Klein, who apparently wanted to be a big-time modeler and inventor! He says nothing about the decisive G-forces, as if they did not exist – just as aviation history at this point in time did not know of them. This important logical reason already makes the whole story stink to high heaven as pure invention]. Of course the flying disks can be put to use in civilian applications, not just for war purposes. A flying saucer can achieve a launch speed of 12,400 km/h within three minutes. Chief Engineer Klein intends to demonstrate a smaller flying disk model with electric drive in Switzerland. If the necessary funds become available [! – Attention, what this is all about] the construction of a two or three passenger prototype is planned.

In a further reworking of this subject the Wiener Echo on 3 October 1954 picked up on a special theme: Evita Peron’s protégé Prof. Richter Built Saucers – Secret of the German Designs – Hitler and the South Pole – Extraterrestrial Appearances Revolutionize Aviation – Austrian Engineer Introduces His First Saucer in Duisburg. Bert Rave provided an exclusive report. He pointed out, that the 52 year old French researcher Georges Grondeau is certain he has solved the big secret of the saucers. All French newspapers published his assertion:

I stake my whole reputation on this truth. Hitler is not dead; he lives at the South Pole. From there he is launching the Flying Saucers. To find this out I did extensive research. How much I wish I had erred! But the research always turned out positive. The magnetic field of Earth serves as the motive power for these messengers. Just for the sake of this invention he devastated the whole of Europe!' What is most strange is that this ‘explanation’ has found numerous adherents in France, even in scientific circles. There is citation of utterances by leading personages shortly before the collapse; the story of the cremation with gasoline and the finding of Hitler’s and his wife’s dental plates is described as an unheard of deception; and there is talk of new revenge with old motives. Simultaneously, numerous landings by UFOs are reported, provoking fear and terror among the French populace with their melodrama.

To continue:

Prof. Oberth, who himself was decisively involved in the development of German rocket weaponry, supports this campaign indirectly with stories of the German secret weapon V7, which, it is said, fell into the hands of the Russians.

Then a further ‘fable’ is revealed: The story of Prof. Ronald Richter, who it claimed, was able to produce atomic energy with the use of Uranium by means of a ‘thermal method’. This made him the protégé of Evita Peron, the late wife of the Argentine president.

Born 1909 in Falkenau, Bohemia, Richter studied psychics at the University of Prague with Prof. von Traubenberg, who, though, can only remember him vaguely because he stood out for his ‘eccentric plans’. Thereafter Richter went to Germany, where, thanks to his connections, he entered German Atomic Research relatively quickly. Hitler did not think much of Atom Bombs, and placed his bets on rocket research, is reported here but which is not totally correct historically. It is claimed that Hitler cast a special eye on the foo fighters and ordered these unknown flying objects to be researched more closely, but that the research group around Oberth and Wernher von Braun ‘did not think much of this matter’. Ritter plied Hitler with clever words and presented him with assumptions as facts about them. These are said to have aroused ‘great interest’ in the dictator since Richter spoke of ‘Electricity and Magnetism as the key to the physical secrets of the world’. Because of that, Hitler gave Peenemünde a contingent from the research group as support; ‘this contingent worked with precision and great success’.

Since the war was clearly nearing its end, Richter collected all supporting documents, to capitalize on them in another country. The Allied Secret Services did not know what to make of the strange Prof. Richter and so an old friend, who had ended up in Argentina after the war, came to his aid. This country, which also was, on paper, in a state of war with Germany but otherwise did little to hide its sympathies for Hitler’s Reich was under the influence of Evita Peron who had an open heart for German military men and inventors [war criminals would be a better word]. And so on 16 August 1948 Richter surfaced in Buenos Aires ‘with inconspicuous papers’ [meaning a forged passport].

Monies flowed from the Argentine treasury sack for the support of this illustrious guest. Soon even State President Peron was prepared to receive the researcher in his official residence, the Casa Rosada. The conversation was heartfelt. Evita, some weeks earlier, had already confidentially discussed the secret designs of Richter’s research group with experts of the land. The big chance for an ambitious country, that due to its position and the general situation could not play a dominant role in the concert of the big powers, must be seized; the country first to produce a Saucer using the energy fields of the cosmos for power must become a world power of the first order. Peron, who at that time was having troubles with the democratic countries because of his authoritarian regime, would become the mightiest man on Earth – reason enough to sink some money into the matter .

Thus confabulated the Austrian newspaper is thereby releasing a new Mythos in the UFO-Distortion Sector – the idea of the man-made flying machine, beyond all known aerodynamic laws, based on the ‘genial ideas of Germans’. Nationalistic hubris once again comes to the fore through the back door. Just how Austrian journalists in particular helped propagate this Mythos is strange enough…

The yarn continues:

With her usual drive, Evita Peron succeeded in having a gigantic work station for Saucers built for Prof. Richter on the Island Huemul. The project, according to cautious estimates, cost the Argentinian state 1,5 Billion Schilling.

American newspapers are said to have reported about it and suppositions floated around that even a palace for Hitler had been build on the Island Huemul. About that nothing has so far come to light in our studies, even though we are really well informed about the history of UFO reportage in the United States. Peron apparently was no miser and bestowed Argentinean citizenship upon Prof. Richter and a high rank; a luxurious villa was build for the researcher and he was given a princely remuneration – and despite that Richter’s constructions never flew. The project failed and Peron experienced the biggest humiliation of his life; the dream of the ‘Big Power’ Argentina under Peron proved to be a soap bubble [just as the reportage about it]

Major Saucer Alarm in Austria About Landing of the Saucers – Radio Connection with the UFOs Strengthened – Police Director Rupertsberger of Linz Issues Special Order – Echo Reader Reports a Landing – Sensational Revelations, it continued in the Wiener Echo on  October 10, 1954. In the meantime the Ufo series in the paper had led to the Austrian press being ‘daily filled with reports about observations by serious personagess.’ Even the Police Director of LInz, Hofrat Rupertsberger issued a special order whereby all safety personnel was directed to report all sightings without delay. The reports from the Austrian area were numerous: Police Officers, Intellectuals, Hunters, Farmers, Tradesmen. All saw mysterious objects racing across the sky. In France and Portugal appear reports of saucer landings.

Wiener Echo’s take on that; ”Much of it can be ascribed to hysteria. But one thing is true, the Saucers are increasing their operations across the world, especially over Austria and France. Something seems to be happening that we do not know yet. Something big is in the offing. Hundreds of letters reach the editorial office daily. A reader from LInz saw the landing of a flying object. Human-like beings emerged. Glued to the spot he observed the doings of these figures, which apparently can see all movements “telescopically’. It became ‘hot’ around the flying object, without the temperature having risen. The reader gives his name. Maybe he has too strong an imagination.”

Prof. Oberth who held a large press conference in Saarbrücken is again cited declaring that he believes in the existence of UFOs. In his view the Uranians would have developed a flight technique far beyond our own. But Prof. Oberth also asserted that the UFOs represent in part improved constructions of the V-7 captured by the Russians near Vienna in 1945. Even the constructor had ended up in captivity. Numerous readers of Echo aver to the editors that Hitler and his staff fled Berlin via Saucers. Callers and visitors insist they know everything about the Nazi Underground Deep Space Ships.

This was too much even for Echo: ‘That must be relegated to the realm of fantasy. It will be good if the emotions will settle. We have no reason to let a panic arise.” How deceitful, and refusing their own co-responsibility due to the sensationalized reportage. In the next paragraph, however, it continues in the usual vein: “The motion made in the French Parliament to catch a Saucer by the use of all force and bring it before Parliament could have dangerous repercussions.”

Saucer-Pilot Spoke Russian – Czech Worker Claims To Meet Him in Southern France – thus read a DPA/UP dispatch from Paris picked up by the Kasseler Post on 26 October 1954. A Czech worker from Saint-Remy near Epina (Eastern France) reported to the police this weekend to have met the pilot of a ‘Flying Saucer’ who spoke Russian and asked him if he was in Italy or Spain and how far it was to the German border. Afterwards the foreigner, who carried a revolver in his hand had led him to a ‘Flying Saucer’. The worker described the saucer as a flying object of two disks with a periscope, approximately 1.5 meters high and 2.5 meters wide. After the foreigner had said good-bye in Russian, the flying machine had risen vertically up in the air, with a sound resembling that of a sewing machine, and at a height of about 500 meters flown towards the south. Since then, the French weekly L'Express has put up a reward of 10 Million francs (about 10,000 DM) to anyone able to bring incontrovertible proof for the existence of a ‘Flying Saucer, ‘Cigar’ or similar object from ‘another world’.

Flying Saucers Without Sensationalism – German Construction Design Plans Unveil a World Mystery was announced by the Allgemeine Zeitung Mainz on November 1, 1954:

Any feelings of panic because of a possible Martian invasion of Earth are senseless.

-- Prof. Ernst Heinkel.

The darkening wisps of fog of wet November days turn our sunny world into a Niflheim and nourish us with premonitions pregnant with disaster. The fear of an incurable disease, of the scalpel, the cemetery and what follows tries to terrorize our peaceful dreams. If the optic nerve of belief is also atrophied we feel the depression of realizing that our life is really no "Serenade in Blue" but is being forced into a dead end by unavoidable advancing years. All the more then, our sober mind submits to every wonder drug dispensed by any charlatan. The more mystic an offered assertion is the more we are inclined to fall for sensationalism. We, the people of the 20th Century, who think we are well informed and beyond our childish beliefs, bend down in fervour before any impossible news, if it is only depicted as scientific or official. Into the realm of sensationalism belongs also the ado about the ‘Flying Saucers’ of the American Donald E. Keyhoe. In his book 'Flying Saucers From Outer Space' he alarms the world, spreading fear and terror among many people, turning them into his credulous followers. There has even been founded a committee for the reception of the Martians and a precise program of festivities has been set out. New revelations drive out this tomfoolery. At a meeting of the ‘Old Eagles’ of Aviation early in October in Stuttgart and in the 'Züricher Tageszeitung' the veil of secrecy surrounding the UFOs was torn away. Mankind can see clearly now; the UFOs do not come from Mars. They were instead probably first build by the US according to designs developed in Germany during the Second World War. Chief Engineer Klein, former Special Envoy of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium was able to produce an original plan with construction design drawings of the UFOs. There are currently three types of UFOs in different countries. There are disks of 16 and of 42 meters diameter. The large ‘Saucers’ have twelve jet assemblies for propulsion; the small ones only five.

Already, back in 1942 construction was commenced in Germany. An unmanned, remote controlled disk was launched at the time from Stettin; it crashed on Spitzbergen. As is well-known a disk flies further through the air than a ball with the same expenditure of energy (we can try that with a beer coaster) and thus disks are more suitable for high speeds than planes with fuselages. The flying disk is sub-divided into narrow adjustable Flight Segments (Kreisabschnitte) driven like a rotating disk by several jet pipes and turning around a cupola cabin. By adjustment of the segment wings the flying machine displays the qualities of a helicopter or a fast flying plane. Steering is accomplished by means of directional adjustments of the jet assemblies, not with stabilizers and rudders as in a regular plane. Forward trust for level flight is provided by two large jet arrangements, regulated by dosing the input of fuel. If the jets are swiveled downwards, and the thrust adjusted, the UFOs can hover in midair. The disk emits streams of variegated colours. The maneuverability of this flying object far exceeds that of an usual airplane. To a distant observer it appears as if the ‘Saucers’ can change course at right angles like a dragonfly. The speed of several thousand kilometers an hour does not harm the passengers since the introduction of pressurized cabins, which now also being used in passenger jets at great altitudes. According to Klein, the rate of lift could already be increased to 12,400 meters in three minutes. We are thus left with one less illusion. We should not feel sad; with the unveiled secret the discouraging thoughts of an ‘Alien Invasion’ also disappear. For now mankind has only to deal with his own kind; we must understand and be at peace with each other as individuals and as countries.

The magazine Der Flieger (Nr.11/1954) in the "Luftpolitische Monatsschau" of Dr. Waldemar Beck also took up our subject:

The ‘Old Eagles’ have met again. They are neither a corporation nor an association. They are a loosely-knit group of like-minded people, that already before 1914 were engaged in aerial activities, with the addition of a very few, who made a name for themselves in aviation through singular accomplishments after 1914. This year about 150 ‘Alte Adler’ came together in Stuttgart. All participants were honoured guests of the city, the Heinkelwerke in Zuffenhausen and the Winzergenossenschaft Untertürkheim/Rothenberg. Some intrepid ones also spent Saturday afternoon at the Cannstatter Volksfest, southern Germany’s big Autumn Farmers Day, and certainly did not regret that. Four days were spent partying and debating, from 1 to 4 October, inclusive. Sunday was reserved for active aerial flights at the airport Echterdingen where Falderbaum, among others, performed splendid flight maneuvers. Monday belonged to Ernst Heinkel and his factories which were toured with great interest.

The Albatros aircraft works was founded by Walter Huth and Otto Wiener on December 20, 1909. It quickly became the largest German aircraft factory with 6,140 employees. After the licensed construction of French airplanes, in 1913 Ernst Heinkel was taken on as a designer, and many aviation records would be broken on his successful monoplanes and biplanes. During World War I the factory built 67 different types of aircraft.

Listing names is usually meaningless, but some should be mentioned to let outsiders know just who was there. The senior ‘Old Eagle’ August Euler vom Feldberg was not present; he had dislocated his shoulder but wants to participate again the next time. The next oldest, Walter Huth and Generalarzt a.D. Kosche, both almost 80, stood out with their special cheer and liveliness. Baur de Betaz, Dahlmann, Werner Zahn, all in company of their wives, the “Flieger von Tannenberg" Ernst Canter, who with Friedrich was especially to be thanked for the success of this year’s get-together, and many others – not to forget Hanna Reitsch, who now, well deservedly, possesses the Golden Honour Needle of the ‘Old Eagles'!

29 August 1914: Ltns. Canter and Mertens of FL Abt 14 identify Russian reinforcements advancing from the south against the right flank of General Francois' Corps encircling the Russian 2nd Army at Tannenberg; Francois repels the Russians and victory at Tannenberg is assured, and Canter earns undying fame as "Der Flieger von Tannenberg".

Professor Ernst Heinkel welcomed his guests in Zuffenhausen as he did two years earlier in Remstal with overwhelming words of hospitality. There has been a reply to his ‘scientific’ dissertation on the disputed subject of ‘Flying Saucers’ by the latest developments. Heinkel in his lecture denied the possibility of the existence of these mysterious flying vehicles, basically for technical reasons. In full agreement with us, Heinkel declared that the book by the claimed American Major Keyhoe, which unfortunately was publicized noisily in Germany, is an outright fraud and swindle for dummies (The Americans unfortunately still underestimate, even today, the level of European and especially German mentality and the German speaking educational standards; furthermore it is filled with errors, untruths and contradictions). What purpose this heavily financed work is pursuing is beyond the scope of this article; in any case, everyone put into a panic mode because of an impending invasion of Earth by Martians will soon be taught in a better and earth-bound way. Since Heinkel’s talk only a few days have passed, but they have been sufficient to tear away a large piece of the veil still wafting around the UFOs. Friends from Switzerland came to my aid, who told me the following: The 'Züricher Tagesanzeiger' has had an interview with Oberingenieur Klein, who was ‘Sonderbeauftragter of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium’ and thus had insight into secret research activities. He reported that plans for the UFOs were made in Germany during the Second World War. Three constructors worked on them; of whom Engineer Schriever died one and a half years ago in Bremen and the second, Italian Turbine Engineer Belluzzo has also been dead for about two years. The third of these constructors, Miethe, however is residing in the US according to the Swiss newspaper. This paper thus assumes that the ‘Saucers’ are produced in the US, for which also the order of the American Air Force General Staff not to shoot at UFOs gives apparent evidence. We consider this conclusion to be too restrictive and without substance, but it is, in any case a further support of our claim that UFOs are of earthly origin! Oberingenieur Klein was even in the position of producing an original plan showing construction details of the UFOs [what still does not mean anything]. From this design plan the following, among other things, emerges with almost 100% certainty: There are currently, according to year long observations in many countries, three types of UFOs. One as a diameter of 16, the other of 42 meters. That is the explanation that observers have sighted both large and small “Saucers’ in the sky. The 42 meter disks have far more jet assemblies for the propulsion than the small, 12 vs. 5. Construction was already started in 1942 in Germany, with the actual test flights two years later. An unmanned, remote controlled Flying Disk, build during the experimental time in Peenemünde [none of the real Peenemünde Rocket Builders knows anything about this, neither von Braun, nor Oberth and their staff] was launched from Stettin and crashed on Spitzbergen.....

UFOs from Munich announced H.T. Rowe on  November 27, 1954 in 7 Tage:

The next few weeks will show if the Secret of the Flying Saucers has been solved or not. It looks as if the Engineer Curt Piltz from Munich is hard on the trail of the mysterious flying objects that have for years been stirring the emotions of people on all five continents. Curt Piltz. a 42 year old Maschinenbau Ingenieur from East Germany, insists he has the plans for a circular flying object with hereto unknown aerial qualities in his pocket. And even more: In a hidden work shop, somewhere on the outskirts of Munich, he and a colleague are feverishly completing his first ‘Saucer’. He hopes to conduct the first start attempts already within the next few weeks. Ever since the days during the Second World War when he was allowed to assist Professor Wachsmuth in constructing V1 and V2 at the testing area in Peenemünde, he occupied his mind with thoughts of a circular flying object. After the war Curt Piltz went back to constructing anew. And finally he reached the point that he could start his first model near Hannover in August 1952. It took him four months of work to build this first model of a Flying Saucer, at a cost of around 240 DM. It had a diameter of 1.5 metes and consisted of two disks rotating in opposite directions, joined by a solid, gas filled center part which served as an axle.

A catapult like starting device hurled the model into the sky – and the miracle happened; it stayed aloft for about an hour without crashing. May kilometers from the launching pad, Curt Piltz could then see the smoking wreckage; it had crashed on landing. Despite financial worries Piltz continued his work. In May and June of 1954 he launched two new models in the outskirts of Munich. Their Success encouraged him. He is now building the first Saucer, that is to soar into the heavens – manned. Again we are dealing with two disks of approximately 6.5 meters, who rotate in opposition around a gondola where the pilot is to sit. Propulsion is by means of a gasoline engine, which is also fitted into the gondola. Piltz is convinced that the Russian and Americans have for a long time been testing ‘Flying Saucer’ models; those are the mysterious sky visions which keep being constantly sighted throughout the world in the last years.

Flying Saucer’ Currently Being Built – Frenchman Designs Plate-shaped Flying Apparatus announced UP from Paris and on 5 July 1955 the Frankfurter Rundschau printed:

The ‘Flying Saucer is becoming reality and is anticipated to begin test flights next spring. The French Aircraft Constructor René Couzinet surprised the public with of a flying object, named "Aerodyne" which looks exactly like the flying devices of extraterrestrial beings in countless science fiction stories

[!] In fact this model resembles two stacked plates beyond whose rims a wreath of short bearing surfaces or propeller wings protrudes. 96 such surfaces surround the ‘fuselage’ of this machine. At any time, 48 of them driven by three 135 horse power engines counter rotate and thus enable a vertical launch for the device. A jet drive system on the underside of the machine enables, in the words of the constructor, horizontal propulsion. Couzinet explained that the whole flying object created so little air resistance, that enormous speeds can be attained. A tripod system is used in landing the "Aerodyne". One pilot and two passengers have room in the middle of the circular fuselage under a Plexiglas canopy. The "Aerodyne", according to the constructor’s words, will weigh 1.260 kilograms and with a pay load of 2,700 kilograms, be able to carry more than twice its own weight. That alone would be revolutionary since planes used so far, can only carry one third of their own weight in usable cargo weight at the most. As Couzinet went on to explain, the flying machine thus developed by him could practically land anywhere. Furthermore one could come to a complete still stand in the air with the "Aerodyne". To hover the jet stream propulsion system is turned off and the ring of small surfaces allowed to continue rotating with 150 rpm. Couzinet has, as he tells it, worked three years on the construction of this ‘Saucer’. Actually he already wanted to display his model at last year’s Aviation Show, he was, however, prevented by the French Ministry Defense because of safety concerns. The revolutionary machine is being build in am aircraft factory in Levalos Perret, and will be ready in nine to twelve months. The interior of the "Aerodyne" has a diameter of 8.1 meters.

This announcement was accompanied by an AP picture with the caption:

The ‘Flying Saucer’, whose model was exhibited for the first time in Paris by its French Constructor Couzinet, is to become reality. The flying machine consists of two counter rotating disks, each with a diameter of more than eight meters. The cupola in the center is intended for the pilot and passengers.


[The case of Couzinet was to end tragically later because his "Aerodyne" turned out to be one more flop in the sector of man-made Flying Saucers. This shows clearly, that in that era the time was ripe for inventors and hobbyists to make the popular Flying Saucer Mythos their own and imitate it. As is well-known today, all these ideas were nothing but phantasms].

The magazine Hören und Sehen, which apparently later became TV Hören und Sehen, had a title page headline on  July 23, 1955 : The Saucer Phantom Becomes Reality. On pages 2/3 it was revealed that Flying Saucers did in fact exist. After a conference of American Aviation Engineers the secret of the Flying Saucers was seemingly lifted, as a full page sketch tried to show – for two years the Canadian company A.V. Roe has been building flying saucers and testing machines were already in use! Even if there has been no official confirmation there still are flying machines in action with totally new aerial qualities which could not be identified by normal observers. Even the British Airplane Builder Thomas declared that work on a Rocket Disk was being performed ‘eagerly’ there. The capabilities of a jetfighter and helicopter were to be combined. Turner showed a plan which ‘delighted’ the Air Force Experts since its construction would mean a revolution in modern aviation. The result was a ‘beautifully shaped Disk’ whose outer rim was lined by a multitude of jet exhaust pipes. Thus the Flying Saucers are not a fairy tale ‘but earthbound reality’.

Flying Saucer’ for the German Luftwaffe – From the Inventor File of the Federal Defence Ministry
reported Dieter Schröder on September 1,1955 in the Kasseler Zeitung:

"The natural science imagination of a Jules Verne is as nothing compared to it”, said Diplom Ingenieur Lützow of the Koblenzer Beschaffungsstelle [procurement bureau] of the Bundesverteidigungsministerium about the ‘inventions’ offered so far to Theodor Blank, for the defence of the Fatherland. Of the approximate 1,100 submissions only a small fraction are usable, all others are collected into 20 file boxes and resemble the medical files of a Sanitarium for the mentally ill. But even the usable inventions are no technical or scientific sensations. Lützow finds the result of the post-war inventor spirit ‘disturbing’. The would-be inventors sent their designs faithfully to Theodor Blank, but also to Chancellor Adenauer and even to his daughter Lotte. Some of the senders are obviously harmless fools but others are evidently certain to be mentally ill. One ‘inventor’ submitted an ‘ingenious simple design for a Flying Saucer, which is only a reconstruction of the one of the Venusian delegation’. With resignation, he adds, “‘I assume that this letter will land in some paper waste basket. I am therefore looking for other areas of use. I have fulfilled my national obligation with this offer. Respectfully Yours…” Each letter, no matter how crazy the submitted design, is at first answered seriously. Only if the writer does not desist is further attention terminated...

The Tagesspiegel on 27 October 1955 picked up on a report out of Washington under the headline Illusion and Project – the Result of the American Investigation:

As the American Secretary for Air Combat Forces Donald A. Quarles reported during a press meeting on Tuesday, a thorough investigation of almost 5,000 reports resulted in ‘no indication for the existence of the so-called Flying Saucers’. Quarles took the opportunity at this time to turn over to the public a 316 page book that summarized the result of this investigation. He stressed, however, that currently different new airplane models with appearances of new styles, were being developed. “We are just now entering a new period of aviation technology, where airplanes of unusual appearance and unusual aerial capabilities will appear. “ These new airplanes would start vertically, not requiring costly runways, as well as fly with supersonic speeds in horizontal flight. Quarles also aired the secret about the order placed by the American Air Force with the Canadian company Avro Ltd to build a flying object which could be described as a ‘Flying Saucer’ since it would have a discoid shape. He stressed that these military machines were neither ‘supernatural nor mysterious’, they were but further developments of conventional aircrafts. “They will still be subject to natural laws; their characteristic difference will be that that they could get by without costly runways’. Quarles to underline his words, displayed a drawing of the disk shaped flying object as would in all likelihood be build by Avro in Canada. According to this picture the thrust of jet engines is directed on a wreath surrounding the disk. At high RPM the machine can start and land vertically. During horizontal flight the wreath is assumed not to rotate, the thrust of the rotors is to provide lineal forward motion. American Airplane Engineers are facing the project with some skepticism; they doubt that the round shape of the machine is capable of a vertical start, and that the disk is stable at supersonic speeds. The Canadian Government has abandoned this project of the Avro company during the last year.

An investigation carried out by the Technical Secret Service of the Air Force under the name “Project Bluebook" of reports of unidentified flying objects as to be continued in the future. According to the now published report 9% of the sightings remain unexplained. In the view of the Air Force there would surely be natural explanations even for those cases if enough information was available.

The AVRO Disk turned out to be a flop; the futuristic pictorial materiel floating around ghost-like never was never matched by the wobbly Hovercraft that was barely steerable and did not want to rise from the ground. The principle that was the basis of the AVRO Car was abandoned and the idea of the USAF was never carried out in this shape. VTOL craft have now been turned into technical reality, ie. The British Harrier, but even now, at the end of the Nineties this flyer remains a piece of exotica since the too high fuel consumption of the reversible jets during starting and landing limits its operational coverage area, and its armament is limited by the too large fuel tanks.

‘Flying Saucers’ No Delusion/US Air Force Releases First Photos/Test Flights Already Undertaken/A Rapidly Rotating Turbine Disk reported W.H. Fonck on 28 February 1956 in the Mannheimer Morgen:

"We are standing before a new epoch of aviation, where flying objects of unusual construction will appear in the skys.” That is the essence of a statement given by US State Secretary of Air Combat Forces, Donald A. Quarles made to the American public. Quarles interpreted with these bare words the publication of the first, so far top secret, US Air Force photos [graphics] of a ‘Flying Saucer’ currently being build by the Avro Canada Company. The saucer ado which filled newspaper columns for years may now be put to rest. “In most cases. where there is talk of Saucers sightings, we are dealing with optical illusions or natural phenomena, not a visit from another star’ said Quarles, but also admitted that the first, still propeller driven, circular flight machine had already been tested years earlier. Without doubt numerous sighting reports refer to this ‘Real Saucer [there is no indication of that in the shape of film material!] The second Disk Flight Machine. currently being assembled in the tightly sealed work halls of Avro, has jet propulsion and is capable oif greater speeds. The deciding point for the new construct is that it can start and land vertically, can hover in midair, and can even fly sideways or backwards. That is a tremendous advance. The fastest of all vehicles can not simply brake in times of danger; it has to continue flying, in good and bad weather, with engine troubles, fires or icing up. “As long as it is not possible to brake aircraft during flight, to stop if necessary, the safety of aviation hangs by a thin thread,” is the opinion of experts. Of course, helicopters can perform this maneuver but they are only ‘slow flyers’. The Avro Disk in contrast can achieve supersonic speeds; in a few seconds, however, it can reduce its furious velocity to zero.

Its construction secret is a rapidly rotating turbine disk, resembling that in a steam turbine. On the underside of the Discus an intensive area of low pressure or updraft is created, many times more powerful than in a fixed wing airplane. On the upper side, in contrast, a strong area of low pressure or suction is notable. These aerial forces are so gigantic that a ‘Flying Saucer’ can start from the spot directly upwards. This trait impresses the military the most; a defensive fighter plane with this principle could be launched from any improvised start location, and at a t steep attack angle be directed again any approaching enemy aircraft. While the rotating turbine ring acts during starting and landings, a conventional jet drive is utilized for fast level flight. The cabin in the center stays stationary, of course, the axis of the non-rotating center section. The US Air force has drawn a veil of military secrecy over further details such as size, flight performance etc.

‘Flying Saucers’ a German Invention? First Launch Claimed On 14 February 1945 UP reported from Munich and on November 20, 1956 the Neue Presse picked up on the story:

Currently J.F. Lehrmanns Verlag is publishing a book with the title “Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaf­en des zweiten Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung", the first comprehensive revelation of inventions in the weapon technological field between 1939 and 1945. The undertaken overview by Rudolf Lusar extends from the common weaponry to Jet Stream Fighters, Rocket Planes, Flying Disks, Rocket Missiles and Flak. The work appears to be as authentic as sensational in its revelations, which have never been published previously in this form. Among other topics there is also close coverage of claimed ‘Flying Saucers’. Accordingly, German scientists and researchers are to have already taken the first steps towards these ‘Saucers’ during the war, and to have build and tested such bordering on the miraculous Flying Machines. According to testimonies of experts and co-workers, the first projects, called ‘Flying Disks’ were begun in 1941; the plans originated with the experts Schriever, Habermohl and the Italian Bellonzo. Habermohl and Schriever chose a broad surfaced ring that turned around a stationary cupola-like pilot cabin and which consisted of adjustable air vanes which could be turned to the appropriate position according to the requirement of starting or horizontal flight. The researcher Miethe developed a discus-like ‘Plate’ of 42 meters diameter with adjustable jets.

Schriever and Habermohl, who worked in Prague on February 14, 1945, launched the first flying disk, which reached an altitude of 12,400 meters in three minutes, and a speed of 2,000 km/hr in horizontal flight. The intent was to achieve speeds of 4,000 km/h. A tremendous amount of pre-trials and research work was required from 1941 before this would be possible. The heat build-up in the outer skin resulting from the high speeds required special heat-resistant materials, which, judging by the successful launch, were found. By war’s end the development was close to completion. The existing models were destroyed, but the Breslau factory where Miethe was working, fell into the hands of the Russians who brought all materiel and professional workers to Siberia where work continued on these ‘Saucers’. Habermohl likely ended up in Russia, since nothing more was heard of him. The American Air Force for years has been under orders not to shoot at ‘Saucers’, which is seen as proof that such devices exist and are being tested and are not to be endangered.

French Aircraft Designer Shoots Himself. Flying Saucer was His Fate it read in Bild on December 19, 1956 under the by-line of the correspondent in Paris, August Graf Kageneck:

René Couzinet (52) shot himself and his wife at his home because the government had denied him the money to build the ‘Flying Saucer’ he had invented. Counzinet was considered one of France’s greatest and most revolutionary aircraft constructors. His inventions assured France a big advantage in aviation construction between the two World Wars.

His biggest success was the tri-motor plane ‘Rainbow’ in which his friend, the commercial pilot Jean Mermoz, in the year 1933, crossed the South Atlantic from Dakar to Rio de Janeiro non-stop, for the first time. All his successes brought him little gratitude. There was much envy. Before the ‘Rainbow’ could start its Trans-Atlantic flight, Couzinet, the son of a village teacher, had to overcome huge difficulties and enmities. During the Second World War he fled from the invading German troops to Brazil. When he returned, the small airplane factory he owned with his brother had been destroyed. Undismayed the brothers Couzinet began reconstruction. In 1950 they build a float plane for the French Navy that is still in use today. René Couzinet married the beautiful Gilberte Mermoz, the widow of the crosser of the Atlantic. Three years ago, René Couzinet wanted to cash in on his greatest success. He demonstrated his Flying Saucer to representatives of the French Government; a circular machine with a diameter of eight meters, capable of accommodating three passengers. It was powered by three jet engines. Because he was, as always, in financial difficulties, Couzinet could only demonstrate a model. “If the government will advance me 300 million francs, I can complete the machine within a year. Then France will be ahead of the world by 20 years!” He was denied the loan. The model of the Flying Saucer remained in a shed of the Couzinet factory; René became more and more embittered and deranged. Three times he went to the police to report assassination attempts against himself. It is assumed that these attempts were only fantasies of his ailing imagination. On Monday he took a last walk with his wife through the Bois de Boulogne. At 11 pm his neighbour heard two bangs. But he thought it was children playing with fireworks on the street. The next day Couzinet’s brother waited for him in vain at his office. He notified the police. Judging by the positioning of the two bodies, the detectives consider that Mrs. Couzinet was caught unaware when her husband shot her.

The Tragedy of René Couzinet – The French Constructor of ‘Flying Saucers' Chose Suicide With His Wife the French correspondent of the Kasseler Zeitung reported on December 27, 1956:

Under tragic circumstances the French aircraft designer and aviation pioneer René Couzinet ended his life by his own hand. After it was certain that his life’s dream, which had seemed within reach, to build the first French Flying Saucer, was not to be realized, he put a bullet through his and his 46 year old wife’s heads in despair. And yet Couzinet had always been a man for whom the word ‘impossible’ did not exist. In 1932 he had been topic of conversation internationally as the constructor of the French Trans-Atlantic plane “Arcen Ciel" (Rainbow).

The dream of his last years had been the Project ‘Flying Saucer’, whose realization would have brought French commercial aviation to the top for many years. For four years Couzinet laboured on this dream. There were months he did not see his home, sleeping beside his plans and models in his private design studio in Neuilly on the Seine. In a construction hangar a full scale model of his ‘Saucer’ has stood for 18 months. It meets our conception of these constructs, which so far only existed in the imagination, one hundred percent; with a diameter of 10 meters, a surface area of 22 square meters, four powerful turbo jet drives and a flattened dome cupola of Plexiglas under which three passengers can find room comfortably.  

According to this example, Couzinet wanted to build his first vertical start ‘Saucer Aircraft’ within the year. The plans were all prepared and ready. The only thing lacking was money. It was soon apparent that the French Government lacked the courage to enter into the expensive proposition. For over a year the ingenious constructor was stalled with subterfuges. The formally lively Frenchman sank into dire financial straits, had to lay off all his aviation personnel and lost his spirit. To add to this, in1954 the Seine flooded his low lying airfields causing considerable damage. It came to the point that Couzinet believed himself to be boycotted by everyone, began to fear for his life and would only go out carrying a loaded revolver. Then he reached the final low point, saw no other way out but suicide together with his wife. The streamlined model in the abandoned airfield in Neuilly will never be launched into the sky. It sits by itself in a shed, guarded by a bearded security guard who is there to protect the run down air field from vandalism.

Stern in its 12 January 1957 edition published a picture of the Flying Saucer with the article The Tragedy of a Misjudged Inventor. The magazine reported that the plane ‘Rainbow’ had fallen prey to an act of sabotage and been burned on the ground – ‘from this day on Couzinet was plagued by paranoia, he sensed enemies everywhere; yet he still created many new designs of which all too few were accepted. His last creation was a Flying Saucer powered by two counter rotating disks of 8 meters diameter.”

A ‘Flying Saucer’ Getting Ready To Launch reported UP from Johannesburg, South Africa, and on 27 April 1957 the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung printed:

A ‘Flying Saucer’ constructed by an Austrian engineer will be test flown in Johannesburg in a few weeks. The aircraft has a discoid bearing surface of three meters in diameter, with a cockpit raised like a small hump in the middle. Below the bearing surface four ramjet engines are attached. One is in the center; its trust is directed vertically downwards. This engine is to provide the machine constant lift. The three other jet drives are arranged in a regular pattern around the rim of the disc and can be swiveled. With these the aircraft can be steered in any direction.

Flying Saucers – A German Invention – Engineer from Vienna Finally Reveals the Secret – Why Are the United States Silent? The Truth About the Unknown Flying Objects it read in the Kasseler Zeitung on 7 June 1957, written by the Viennese Special Correspondent of the paper, Otto Schünge:

In the Viennese news weekly "Der Soldat" the Austrian engineer H. Fister who was constructor and chief engineer of the Viennese branch of the Heinkel Werke during the war, in a series of articles is unveiling the secret of the ‘Flying Saucers’. The ‘Flying Saucers’ are a German invention from the last days of the war, which never were brought into operational use only because of the collapse. In 1943 engineer Fister was developing the armed rockets AKAT 1 and AKAT 2. These rockets, 1.25 meters long, weighing 16.8 kilograms with a payload of 1,000 kg were intended to defend against low flying attack planes. Just as Panzerfaust and Panzerschreck were intended to hold back the relentless waves of enemy tanks rolling towards the Reich from all directions, AKAT 1 and AKAT 2 were to destroy the enemy fighter-bombers increasingly dominating the skies above Germany The special characteristic of the AKAT weapons was their magnetic self guidance system. AKAT 1 and AKAT 2 received their final refinements at the research center Burghart near Berlin and already by the beginning of 1944 construction methods had been worked out to the last detail. Of course mass production was not achieved since the air assaults of the Allies destroyed all the factories intended for the assembly of the AKAT weapons. While in Berlin they were still racking their brains how to start up mass production of the AKAT 1 and AKAT 2, Fister was already pursuing new ideas again.

He considered it a draw back that the explosive weapons he developed were doomed to self destruction if they were to serve their purpose and set out to eliminate this ’mistake’. His ponderings led him to the conclusion that the explosive payload was actually unnecessary to achieve the destructive results. The movement of a rocket is based on the law of motion that a body emitting a mass (i.e. combustive gases) and thus experiences an equal opposing reaction. The combustive gases of the AKAT rockets reached temperatures of around 2,000 degrees Celsius. These combustive gases alone, thought Fister, would be sufficient to destroy an airplane. He developed the ’Schneidbrennerprinzip’, where these gases were to melt the aluminum alloys used in the construction of planes. Of course it soon became apparent that conventional airplanes or rockets were totally unsuitable for this purpose. A design was required to facilitate the application of the lethal combustive gases. Fister settled on the shape of a disk. The center part of this new weapon was to remain stationary, but the surrounding disk was to rotate to cut apart enemy aircraft like a circular saw with its glowing combustion gases. Even an ignition device for primary propulsion was unneeded. It was only necessary to initiate the rotating movement with a powerful eclectic motor, after that the rocket did everything else. When Fister had come this far in his planning he decided to call his new invention ’Rosch’ (rotierende Scheibe) and set off to Berlin. But Fister encountered deaf ears in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium. Study assignment and priority level were only to be made available for Vergeltungswaffen, there was no interest in defensive weaponry. Finally he decided to act on his own. Close to Regensburg, in a village of the Oberpfalz, he set up a small laboratory in a barrack. He did not return to his position in Vienna again. The Heinkel-Werke waited a while and then finally made a report to the Wie­ner Arbeits­amt that he was absent without leave from his place of employment. Fister meanwhile was in the Oberpfalz, working away.

Fister’s opportunity came at the beginning of No­vem­ber 1944, when Dr. Göbbels was appointed Hitler’s Reichsbevollmächtigter for Total War. Göbbels’ staff showed more understanding than the Reichsluftfahrt­ministerium, they listened to Fister’s presentation with great interest, had a short conference and within a quarter of an hour, Fister had his study and priority level assignment in hand. ’Rosch’ was to be production ready within three months. By the beginning of February 1945 construction was as good as completed. A disk of 7.1 meters diameter and 0.95 height which was to reach a speed of 3,000 km/h, a launch velocity of 14,000 meters a minute, and a ceiling of 30,000 meters. The auto guidance system was also production ready. It was possible to begin building the ’Rosch’. In fact assembly of a prototype was started. But it was 1945 – it was already too late. The Allies reaped the fruits of the German endeavors. Why are they silent? In the US especially, a big propaganda campaign is being carried out whereby the “UFOs“ are labeled as aerial crafts from other planets. There is no shortage of criticism against the government. But it does leave room for speculation that the head of this campaign, David Keyhse [sic], is a retired US Air Force officer [which is utter nonsense].

To this day there is infighting about if these prototypes described by Klein, Miethe and Schriever, for example, were really capable of flight. While a group of people involved in the subject consider it fully possible, others came to the conclusion that these vehicles are technically impossible since the necessary demands of the centrifugal and acceleration forces claimed exceed the strength of the materials available at that time. Furthermore the equipment with high grade technics (drive trains) was impossible due to the universal materiel shortages. One (not mentioned by name) critic of the Flugkreisel subject, for instance, expressed himself very negatively on the entire subject in an edition of the magazine Luftfahrt International (Nr. 9, May/June 1975). His technological reservations are cited here since they represent a sort of summation for other critics of the German Flying Disc Mythos:

The whole story is incorrect from every angle. It is in fact highly unbelievable and would in all likelihood have died out in the 50s if, at that time, a technician had paid closer attention to this strange conception and done a few calculations. It would quickly have become evident that with the claimed 1800 rpm incredibly tremendous centrifugal acceleration forces would manifest themselves, forces that in this order of magnitude (26,200 g) are only known in experienced with armaments and even there only experienced with small caliber ammunitions. With a weight of 560 kg (BMW 003) of the propulsion unit, massive bolts of high tensile steel would be needed to mount the turbine, which, assuming equal distribution, would require a diameter of 142 mm for a two point attachment and still 116 mm diameter even for a three point one. This enormously heavy suspension would only suffice for a jet drive system at rest, not one in operation! The saucer conceived by Schriever could thus not be realized in the planned configuration. In addition there a more reasons making it impossible. With an operational weight of approximately 3 tons, Schriever and his co-workers would have required about 2 tons of high grade material, numerous instruments and no less than five jet drive assemblies.

At that time there were materiel and engine shortages that could not be alleviated with money alone or even organized. Whoever wanted to carry out such a project then, had to officially submit his list of requirements with the appropriate justification and only then, if approved, received the necessary authorization papers for procurement. In every case the responsible offices received notification of the new project and it was documented. Despite all the confusions of war the files of Speer’s Ministry remained fully intact , as well as the so-called ‘Milch alks’ (named after Field Marshall Erich Milch, the man responsible for aircraft production at the time) and the war diaries of the various armaments commands containing incredibly detailed reports about raw materiel distribution, staffing, projects progress etc. Strangely enough none of these document collections, of which the Milch Talks alone amount to over 40,000 pages and the war diary of Rüstungs Kommando VII which covers the period 15.8.1939 - 31.12.1944 without a gap, contain even the slightest indication of Schriever’s Flugkreisel, Miethe’s Flugscheibe or the V 7 Flakmine. In other words none of these apparatuses existed; they were neither built, nor much less, flown.

 ‘Flying Saucer’ Getting Ready For Test Flight in South Africa it once again was announced by UP and on 6.September 1957 it read in the Rhein-Neckar Zeitung:

A ‘Flying Saucer’ constructed by an Austrian engineer will be test flown in Johannesburg in a few weeks. This aircraft had a discus shaped bearing surface area of three meters diameter with a pilot cabin raised like a small hump in the center. Four jet drives are mounted below this bearing surface. One is in the middle and its trust is directed down vertically to provide constant propulsion. The other three assemblies are arranged symmetrically around the rim of the disk and are adjustable. Swivelling the trust from these three engines allows the whole apparatus to be steered in any direction. The ‘Saucer’ will be remote controlled during the test flight.

On November 4, 1957 the US News and World Report printed the triumphant article Flying Saucers: You'll See Some Official Ones Soon. In it was said that the “Flying Saucer’ Project concerned with “Converti­planes’, a combination of helicopter and airplane traits, soon would be on the verge of a break-through and ‘man-made’ saucers would become reality. In the following weeks and months this topic was picked up by newspapers and magazines in the US with renewed vigour. The AVRO Project, although kept highly secret, became a treasure trove for publishers and editors. Quite a bit of patriotic enthusiasm played its part. In March 1958 Mechanix Illustrated also spread a big story entitled U.S.Air Force Reveals Our Flying Saucer. This feature article was written by the German rocket propagandist Willy Ley.

Flying Saucer Soon Under Construction? asked UP from London and on 23 December 1958 the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung made that its Christmas fairy tale. The Soviet Union. according to a report in the latest edition of the British Journal Jane´s All the World´s Aircraft, is planning a jet powered Flying Saucer. The report goes on to state that a model Flying Saucer had already been tested at the beginning of the year in the Soviet Union. The flying object is said to have a diameter between three and four meters. The cockpit cabin is to be below the circular wing surface.

The Secret “Project Y” was Jes Odam’s contribution to issue 1/1959 of the journal Der Flieger:

Project Y” – behind that innocuous designation a great surprise for the whole world is hiding, the first Flying Saucer! It will attain speeds of 2,900 km/h and be able to fly vertically, horizontally and sideways. The company plants where it is slowly taking shape are those of AVRO in Canada, which is building it for the American Air Force. Lord Montgomery is said to have seen the ‘Flying Saucer’. When he recently visited the Canadian factory, he was escorted to a ‘Secret Room’ and when he emerged he was heard to say “I simply can’t believe it”. Overall responsibility for the technical side of the project is carried by James C. Floyd, originally from Manchester in Great Britain but now a Canadian citizen and Vice President of AVRO, a sister branch of AVRO in Manchester. With some senior co-workers and technicians, Mr. Floyd recently came to Manchester. He gave me an interview in London and I found out, for the first time, from a reliable source that a “Project Y” really exists. Mr. Floyd did refuse to answer in-depth questions about the project and about the discussions held in Manchester. He did, however, confirm that AVRO in Manchester provided technical information about high speed aviation and new designs to its Canadian partner. The Flying Saucer, as I could gather from what was said, will not be rotating during flight. Almost 200 vents will suck in air above the surface of the Saucer until the air pressure above the small lifting body is lower than underneath. At that moment the Saucer will rise. If the pilot wants to decrease altitude, he shuts down all vents except the ones acting in the opposite direction to which he wants to fly. In this manner he can fly in any direction, - up, down, sideways etc; whenever he changes direction his pilot cabin, a transparent cupola in the center of the disk, instantly turns in the direction he is aiming for.. The Saucer will likely not be totally circular but a bit shaped like a horse shoe. It is assumed it will measure 12 meters in diameter. The engine, it can be guessed, is located in the center of the airframe and is constructed to rotate slowly to provide stability to the Saucer by its gyration.

 “Some Things I Have Known for 17 Years!” German UFOs 1947/48 Definitely Observed/Secret Production Were Already Commenced/Descriptions and Details That Will Amaze/The Riddles Regarding the Blue Prints in Spain/Where IS Production Being Carried Out Now? Das Neue Zeitalter asked on behalf of its reader audience on February 6, 1965:

Our publications about the UFOs that do not originate from other stars put are produced here on Earth, likely in two different countries, have aroused a lot of attention. We even received information from the circle of people once engaged in the creation, although they are unsuitable for publication since they are concerned with pure technical problems. Of note, however, were reports we received from Carl F. Mayer of San Francisco, 364 Eddy Street (USA). He wrote us, accompanied by excerpts from long gone times: “Nothing you have written surprises me. I knew some things already 16 or 17 years ago. Others must have known as well at the time, but it was forgotten or wrapped in silence. I have saved some clippings.” We hereby present a news clipping which truly shows that evidently more was known in certain circles in 1947 and 1948 about the UFOs than is acknowledged today:

The Denver Post on November 9, 1947 reported: Spies on Hunt for Secret Weapons! Three German scientist, currently working for Generalissimo Francisco Franco, have developed new weapons of war as is revealed by notes and sketches smuggled out of Spain by agents of an independent European espionage organization. One of these two weapons is an electro-magnetic rocket, claimed to be responsibile for the sightings pf ‘Flying Saucers’ over the American continent last summer and for at least one, perhaps two, unsolved accidents with commercial aircrafts. According to the available information the weapons were developed in secret laboratories near Marbella, on the South Coast of Spain east of Gibraltar. They were tested last spring in the presence of Franco. The rocket, known under the name KM2 after its inventors, Professors Knoh and Müller, was tested on the heights of Malaga while Franco was watching from the deck of his yacht. According to description, the rocket has a range of 16,000 kilometers and once its control is disengaged is attracted by the electric vibrations of passing airplanes or the magnetism of the nearest metal mass. It explodes on impact with the attracting source. The agent who smuggled the blue prints out of Spain and who, in all likelihood was present during the tests, insists that the rockets were aimed at North America and were responsible for at least one, probably two commercial airplane accidents which, for lack of a better explanation were attributed to design flaws.

* As can be seen here there was much wild speculation about claimed Secret Weapons with outstanding abilities which at the time as well as even now surpasse all current conventional technology. But here too these kinds of presentations have never been realized, in fact the World Powers for ongoing applications still rely on traditional aerodynamic designs, or use them as the basis for future developments.

The Neue Zeitalter reported on August 20, 1966 under the by-line of Jan Holberg: Interesting Technical Revelations. The US and Russia Are Producing Them! – UFOs Do Not Exist! But Flying Disks On the Assembly Lines Do!

Let’s Hear the Truth! – Flown Successfully – An End to the Fairy Tale – Precise Technical Specifications – How They Can Be Build and Copied.

On the subject of the UFOs about we have often reported in this space by adhering to verifiable factual material. We received from Dipl.-Wirtsch. Hermann Klaas, 433 Mühlheim an der Ruhr, Leybankstr. 20, accounts and drawings for whose veracity the sender assumes full responsibility. In any case, the submissions are an interesting addition to the subject of UFOs, or Flying Disks as Hermann Klaas calls these Flying Objects of which he says they are by no means ‘Unidentified’ but known only too well and are being build on assembly lines in the US and the Soviet Union.

When will we hear the whole truth and end the absurd American nonsense by finally acknowledging the Germans as the ‘Rightful Heirs’? As enclosures I am sending a photo copy of the sketches and description from my old documentation from 1941 and 1945! I also have sketches of the model of a ‘Flying Disk’ I built in 1941 – a model of the German designed and constructed invention flown in reality with almost unbelievable success. It had a diameter of 2.4 meters with a small high revving special Electro-Engine (there were no gas model motors at the time) and was under the ‘auspices of the Luftwaffe’. It immediately rose so rapid vertically that unfortunately it struck the hangar ceiling (8 meters in height!) and ended up ‘destroyed on the ground’. It must have been of very delicate construction! In any case, such models are impossible or at the least very hard to fly with a diameter of less than 2 meters especially if one wants to utilize a remote control with 6 – 10 channels.

What really flew you can see in the enclosures, as well as the example flown in Bohemia and later near Breslau (where the Miethe group was working!) which had a reinforced ramjet pipe (as used with the so-called V-1). Such a ‘pipe’ must have some sort of joint. The three models pictured in this edition except for the distribution of the ramjets look like the prototype of the Ballenzo-Schriever-Habermohl model, as I drew in my enclosure. The ‘jets’ must be able to swivel to achieve the “Coanda Effect’ that is necessary to enable the ‘Flying Disk’ to rise vertically. Miethe designed better later; with the first type the outer ring belt of high grade metal alloys was still solid as it was in the other models of ‘Flying Disks’. Once the disk had reached a certain altitude so that the trust of the rear jet nozzles became effective, horizontal flight resulted. Naturally these steering maneuvers were not simple; only later design using the ‘sectioned ring belt’ whereby the jets could be swiveled fully! Nowadays, with modern drive trains and fuels everything is simpler and more effective.

These Flight Disks are currently build on assembly lines, in the ‘West’ as well as the USSR, where they are being build in 2 locations (!!!). Why then this nonsensical secrecy? And this nonsense of “Flying Bed Frames’ or Vertical Starters with swivel power trains? For those a splinter or flak hit is sufficient to destroy a cable or ‘joint’ and the complicated apparatus falls down! Naturally there were a number of other designs, also unfinished prototypes – typically German….too late! Miethe and Habermohl could not even get a simple ram jet pipe in the beginning! Luftwaffefeldwebels had to finally ‘organize’ that

* With that the submission actually ends (even if written somewhat awkwardly), but not completely. Three large scale sketches fill the newspaper’s page. Firstly one see the final prototype of the ‘Schriever-Habermohl Flugscheibe’ 1943/45: Early in 1944 this type in a vertical start reached an altitude of 12 kilometers in less than 3 minutes and a horizontal speed of 2,000 km/h. Fuel problems were –because of the ‘competition’- not yet solved. The Walther pipe had an added function – same as the side stabilizers. Next we see the first experimental type 1941/42. This first fully flight-capable Vertical Starter had the same aerial qualities as the one just described, but it had stability problems. The wings in the ring of the "Flügelrad" were adjustable. Fuel was insufficient. The pilot, at first, sat reclined backwards as usual, lying face-down later. Finally, the ‘Ballenzo-Schriever-Miethe Diskus’ developed from the above ‘Flugscheibe’ utilizing the ‘Coanda Effect’. Three man crew, later armed with rockets. The three sketches do look very technical, are, however, nothing but childish-naïve representational drawings.


In 1970 "Ensslin & Laibling" published The Big Book of the Bundeswehr by Hans von Gottberg. On page 258 the subject of the Riddle Surrounding ‘Flying Saucers’ was seized upon. There is a rough cross sectional sketch of a two-stage long distance rocket, the “A9A/10” as well as of the “German Flying Disk” (Flying Saucer’): first start 14/2/1945, altitude 12,400 meters, speed 2,000 .km/h according to the Klein description. The short text read:

For years the public world-wide has concerned itself with the mysterious existence of so-called ‘Flying Saucers’ or ‘UFOs’. They first appeared in 1947, silvery shining with rotating flames around the rim. Radar spotted them, fighter planes pursued them – they fled at unimaginable speeds. Were they space ships of inhabitants from far-off planets or the products of imagination of of newspaper reporters lusting for sensationalism?

In the year 1941 in Breslau and Prague, the German scientists Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe and the Italian Bellonzo began construction of an aircraft they called “Fliegende Scheibe.’ It was a rotating broad-surfaced ring that turned around a stationary cupola like cabin and consisted of adjustable flying disk segments. Miethe developed this ring into a discus like lifting body of 42 meters diameter into which adjustable jet drives were installed. The research for the production of the required materials that were exposed to extreme heat, alone cost millions. On February 1945 Schriever und Habermohl launched the first ‘Flying Disk’ achieving an altitude of 12,400 m in barely three minutes before shooting off at a speed of 2,000 km/h in horizontal flight. The second project already under construction was even anticipated to develop a speed of 4,000 km/h.

At war’s end all prototypes were destroyed to prevent their falling into enemy hands. The constructors Schriever and Miethe moved to the area occupied by the Western powers. The research facility in Breslau where Miethe had worked fell into Russian hands.

All materiel and skilled professional workers along with their families were transported to Siberia, among them presumably Habermohl, since there has been no word of him since. As far as is known, Miethe is developing in America with the A.V. Roe Company ‘Flying Disks’ for the US and Canada. The US Air Force for years has been under orders not to shoot at ‘Flying Saucers’ anymore and the US media is doing its all to relegate the existence of the ‘UFOs’ to the realm of fable. The size of the so far observed aircraft has been reported as 16, 42 and 75 meters diameter and the flying objects are said to reach speeds of up to 7,000 km/h.

* The uncritical acceptance of claims from obscure sources and the evident failure in research and background checks fall heavily upon the author, since following publication of the book many readers and imaginative UFO-believers wanted to accept this publication as a quasii-official declaration and based all conceptions on it. Countless times, the result of this one page, was that it was presented as ‘proof’ over and over gain. Similarly there is a rumour that in May 1978, at display booth 111 of the Hannover Fair, a ‘scientific newspaper’ called Brisant was distributed, dealing with the Flying Saucer Construction Undertaking “Project Saucer”. But its only a one-shot edition filled with crude ‘design sketches’ of fictional Nazi UFOs, evidently plagiarized from an Italian source.

In edition Nr.4/1979 of the journal Luftfahrt International, Hans J. Ebert and Hans Justus Meier report about Prototypes: Unique Fates of German Airplanes – The Kreisflügler AS 6V1:

In the almost two hundred years of aviation history there are airplane types of which neither pictures nor documentation exists, even though they were build and flown. And there are types with one or two available pictures but all further information is missing. One such picture showing an airplane with a circular bearing surface for over 25 years has, at various times, been published in homeland and foreign Aviation Journals without much of the history of this aircraft type being made known. Here, for the first time, is the -almost complete- story of this airplane that never rose into the sky.

The referred to picture is a photograph taken under less than optimal conditions of an airplane with a circular bearing surface with the Luftwaffe colours of the Second World War. This "Fliegende Bierdeckel" as it was called at the time makes a martial first impression heightened by the cockpit cover resembling that of the Me-109. The use of a wooden propeller and an obviously fixed landing gear with spur makes it evident that it could hardly have been intended as an opponent of Mustangs, Spitfires and Thunderbolts although the designer of this strange aircraft intended it for military employment (at least for its successors developed from this prototype).

Hypothetical A.S.8 twin-engined design with rear pusher propeller

The story of this disk begins quite harmlessly, when the farmer Arthur Sack of Machern near Leipzig decided to seize upon the not quite new idea of the Kreisflügler and to realize it as a model for the time being. We do not know what finally inspired Arthur Sack but there were plenty of precedents. For instance the Discus, the throwing disk of ancient classical history or the constant reports over the centuries of ‘Flying Disks’ – even today these sky phenomena appear regularly in the media as UFOs. They are not included in aviation history since the theory that these sightings for the most part are due to natural atmospheric phenomena is gaining more and more ground (?). Possibly disks like the UFOs have stimulated the construction of similar manned aircrafts. In the 19th century in Germany, the now forgotten mathematician and aviation theoretician August Wilhelm Zachariae experimented with circular load bearing models. Around 1911 in England an aircraft with a circular ring wings build by Lee Richards was said to have managed a speed of 130 km/h and a landing speed of around 35 km/h.

For aviation construction in just the beginning stages these were fantastic achievements. In the early 30s a ‘Circle Plane’ was build in the US, where the circular load bearing surface was mounted on a conventional fuselage. This airplane was reputed to have had very good short landing qualities. The American H. Zimmermann proceeded in a more scientific manner when he conducted wind tunnel experiments in 1932 with extremely shortened wings; the results published in “Technical Report 431’ of NACA (now NASA) caused some attention, led to a patent (USA 2.108.093) and later found practical appliction in the "Chance Vought 173" (first flown in 1942). In Germany it was no less a personage than Dr. Alexander Lippisch who since the beginning of 1939 at Messerschmitt in Augsburg developed his Delta Rocket Interceptor Me-163 to the point of readiness for mass production and who, as a side line to this had the Kreisflügel 1940/41 tested in the wind tunnel of AVA in Göttingen, but without achieving any spectacular results.

These cited prototypes and projects are the exceptions in aviation construction. Airplanes with circular bearing surfaces are so rare, they are barely mentioned in aviation reference books. Too many drawbacks are ranged against their use For one thing their structure and thus their construction is quite complex. In addition the circular bearing plane without the aid of supplementary complicated propelling equipment has no aerodynamic advantages over the conventional airplane.

To return to Arthur Sack’s labours – he began realization of his idea around 1938/39. When he demonstrated his Model 1939 the fortunate coincidence of the Generalluftzeugmeister’s presence came to his aid. Udet was so impressed by the idea of a militarily operational Flugscheibe that promised to pass unhindered through the current defensive balloon barrages, he at least eased Sack’s way to further trials. The demonstration of the model occurred during the "Erster Reichswettbewerb für Flugmodelle mit Verbrennungsmotoren", July 27 and 28, 1939 in Leipzig-Mockau. The participants were given the assignment to carry out an aimed flight with return to the starting point using the most simple directional guidance systems. The contest was carried out in a low-key fashion, excluding the public. That soon proved to be a wise decision, since this first attempt to come upon a tactical usable Mini Reconnaissance Aircraft via model flights turned out to be a total failure. Most of the models were equipped with so-called ‘self steering devices’ which did not function while the engines were engaged. The only true remote controlled model of Sinn crashed at the start and the steam turbine equipped model of Scholl burned up during the heating up process. A full-fledged fiasco. Sack too had problems with his ‘Flying Beer Coaster’. His model, starting without competition, could not break free of its earthly bonds despite several attempts and had to finally be launched manually by its builder. The powered flight, lasting several minutes, took the model, labouring heavily due to faulty trim but, nonetheless flying stable, to heights of some hundreds of meters. The final ‘glide landing flight’ scarcely deserves that appellation – the model came down heavy like a ‘piano in a weak thermal layer’. But these were mere shortcomings, which Sack during further flight tests after the contest could easily remedy. The diameter of the Kreisflügler was 1,250 mm, its weight about 4,500 grams. Apart from its circular shape and the unique demands caused by it, the flying disk corresponded in its technical data to other conventional types of the time. A suspended Kratmo 30 Motor of 0.65 horsepower at 4,500 rpm with a propeller of 600 mm diameter served as propulsion. This 30 ccm engine soon discontinued by the manufacturer because of its high weight and low output was not in common usage with the model flyers of that period since, like most other German motors, it did not start easily. Nowadays the Graupner Wankel Motor of only 4.9 ccm and weighing 335 grams delivers the same performance!

As far as can be established to date no design drawings of the models demonstrated by Sack in Leipzig-Mockau exist anymore. Since it was described and pictured in several newspapers of the time it is possible to reconstruct a provisional multi-view picture to show the general details of construction. It shows that at first Sack intended an altitude rudder to provide greater flight stability. The raked fuselage reminiscent of the Fw 190, proved to be unsuitable for starts and should also be of little use in landings. Arthur Sack build four more models before he proceeded, mid war, to the realization of a manned aircraft. Because of the private basis of his project he was naturally dependant on the help of specialists. Initially statistical assessment and then construction was carried out with the aid of an engineer of Mi-Mo ((Mitteldeutsche Motorenwerke) in Leipzig. The further construction of the plane with the designation AS 6 was completed with the help of the Flugplatz Werkstatt Brandis by the beginning of 1944. The airplane was equipped with an Argus 10 C engine of 240 hp and had a circular surface with a Göttinger profile and a diameter of 6.4 meters. With an estimated flight weight of 750 to 800 kg the bearing weight would have been about 25 to 30 kilograms per square meter, something in the range of a Klemm 25 D. Since Sack himself was no flyer he had to search for a solo pilot. In the beginning of February 1944 he approached the chief pilot of ATG in Leipzig and asked him to test fly the airplane. (The ATG, formerly DFW, during the war build the Ju 52/3m and Ju 88/188/388 under licence). With the agreement of the ATG, Chief Pilot Baltabol began his employment at the beginning of April 1944 with a ‘ground inspection’. Baltabol reported: “The airplane, to the eye, made a good impression. Despite it being a hobbyist construction, of course also using the resources available to the Aviation Center at Brandis, one must definitely declare it of superior workmanship.” With the first attempt of an in-flight loop it turned out that the arrangement and adjustment of the pedals were badly chosen and that the full side rudder had no braking qualities. The breakage of a landing spur brought the first test to a premature close.

After the spur was reinforced and equipped with a steel rail as a backbone and the pedals had been adjusted more usefully, the testing could continue. Even though lateral direction guidance proved to be heavy, Baltabol carried out 5 starts on the 1.2 km long runway of Brandis. All five attempts remained unsuccessful because the plane porpoised and over-reacted to the lateral rudder. To add insult to injury the leg on the right side of the landing gear broke during the last start attempt. During the repairs a suggestion of the pilot to move the landing gear provisionally back 20 cms due to high tail heaviness, was considered. Because of construction reasons this was unfortunately not possible, it had to moved back a full 40 cms. As a result the plane during taxiing star became so front heavy that the pilot refused to take responsibility for a start, more so since new alterations in the cable arrangements for the side rudder and the pedals made application of the brakes impossible. Thus more changes were necessary. After installation of a brake system from a Ju 88 and the addition of 70 kg ballast just in front of the side fin, as well changes in depth of lateral and vertical rudders by about 20 mm through the application of stripping the aircraft was once again ready to start. But that start also failed. With a front heavy trim the airplane, even after taxiing 600 meters (!) still showed no inclination to leave the runway. When, after the second attempt, it turned out that the motor had much too little performance the testing had to be interrupted once again. After remedying all shortcomings the decisive start attempt was made on April 16, 1944. in almost dead calm weather the machine was rolled to the furthest edge of the 700 m long runway. When Baltabol opened the throttle, the AS 6 did accelerate extremely quickly – but once again showed no inclination to launch after 400 m, even though the pilot pulled gently on the joystick. Only after 500 m did the violently swaying plane make its first tentative hop, and while the pilot was still trying to compensate for the sway, it already alit again. Since the end of the runway was approaching threateningly Baltabol had no choice but to terminate the start. At the next start the pilot aided the launch by rolling the machine at a somewhat higher angle. Even though a somewhat longer ‘jump’ resulted, the machine did not gain altitude even at high rpm. A continuation of the start attempts was no longer possible that day, since the propeller had been damaged due to strong tilt of the plane while rolling. Baltabol suggested increasing the output of the motor, that in his opinion was inadequate, and if a renewed start should fail to have the plane checked out for its start and landing capabilities in a wind tunnel.

The tests so far had proven that a decisive flaw existed, one that in all likelihood could only be remedied by wind tunnel testing. That exceeding Sack’s opportunities. However he did not give up but tried to solve the problem by conventional means. When in Summer 1944 the first group of JG 400 with Me-163 were stationed at Brandis, Arthur Sack once again began a search for a pilot. Even though the men of JG 400 with their Me-163, the fastest plane at that time and perhaps the most critical, had seen a lot, even they became sceptical when they saw Sack’s "Bierdeckel". Nevertheless an adventurous pilot was found in the person of Oberleutnant Franz Rösle who was willing to venture the start. But already at the first roll-out there was new drive-train failure. With that the career of the AS 6 V1 appears to have ended, since during the last difficult war months every man was needed, especially in Brandis.

To round off the story, it must be mentioned that an eyewitness claimed to have seen a circular load-bearing plane in the autumn of 1944 at the airport of Neubiberg near Munich. The aircraft was painted yellow. The question if it was the AS 6 V1 must remain open. Its not unthinkable, since Arthur Sack proved that he pursued his ideas with fervour with his construction and ongoing testing, although without success. All that without the support of the RLM and in times of war! Why should he not have been to bring the plane to Southern Germany for wind tunnel trials? Maybe the machine came under the aegis of the Luftwaffe and was relocated from Brandis.

This revelatory article was accompanied by three b&w pictures, two of which show the original plane as Walter Zucker and Wolfgang Späte were able to photograph it. The third picture is of a display model by Hans Justus Meier,demonstrating how the AS 6 would have looked.

Also a comprehensive drawing found its way into publication, one in which Peter von Schalscha-Ehrenfeld is said to have had decisive input. As a bonus a sketch of the Wind Tunnel Model J 1253 from the period of 1940/41 ordered by Alexander Lippisch is printed; not an airplane model but a wind tunnel prototype of a pure discoid wing shape. Furthermore, there is an autobiography of the authors, to show which publications had already reported on Sack’s work: Der Flieger 11-12/1940, Modellflug 9/1939, with picture; Der deutsche Sportflieger 11/1939, Der deutsche Sportflieger 9/1940. The photograph by Walter Zucker already appeared in the English magazine RAF Flying Review during the 50s. This picture was then used in the book Das Buch der deutschen Luftfahrttechnik, Mainz 1970, by B. Lange with the following caption: “An unidentified Kreisflügel Flugzeug of the Second World War”. Späte’s photograph first appeared in Der Flieger 4/1977 with the notation that it was a private construction with which repeated taxiing and start attempts were made in Brandis. As can be seen the idea of this Flying Disk was quite well-known in aviation enthusiast circles in the early 40s: it is no wonder that thinkers, hobbyists and inventors, without having Sack’s possibilities, sat down and wove all sort of thoughts about this kind of aircraft, thoughts that were later brought into circulation as ‘Factual Reports', without ever achieving the status of Sack’s AS 6 V1.

The Journal für UFO-Forschung (JUFOF) in January 1980 published “Test Edition 1”, letter sized, mimeographed one-sided. It took over for the GEP Nachrichten, and the test issue was to establish if a further publication of the GEP internal newsorgan was worthwhile at all. In this edition H.W. Peiniger concerned himself with the question Were there Flugkreisel in Germany. He made it clear that Schriever’s Flugkreisel was never flown and that an examination of press reports regarding it show “many discrepancies”.

The Neue Presse of Augsburg on 2 Mai 1980 had sensational news: The Father of the Flying Saucer is a Long-Time Augsburg Resident/Hein­rich Fleißner (76): I Could Build the Jet Disk Again Anytime/Americans Snapped Up Patent for the Super Machine reported Reinhardt Sandner:

It was not that easy to track down the inventor –or at least the father of the idea of a flying disk- of the ‘Flying Saucer’. But now the 'Neue Presse' can lift the veil of this “UFO” secrecy, that the constructor and multi-patent holder Heinrich Fleißner is no ‘greenhorn’ as his birth year, 1904, can attest. Exactly 25 years later this ‘inventive spirit’ who had been intensely involved in fluid dynamics, of both water and air, took out a patent on a "Ro­ta­ting Jet Air­craft with Lif­ting Disc Wing and Cen­tri­fu­ging Tanks". Years later, when the war threatened to lift the whole world from its hinges, this Jet Disk became of interest to the Luft Waffe as a Courier Transport. Hermann Göring, despite a construction prohibition by Hitler for whom ‘the thing was too fast’ declared himself as a proponent of this aircraft, which could reach speeds of 3,000 km/h within earth’s atmosphere and up to 10,000 km/h outside. One example makes the unimaginable clear: circumnavigate the globe in four hours. The ‘brain’ of the technical developers was in Peenemünde, the component parts were assembled in different locations under the strictest secrecy. Fleißner acted as Technical Advisor. He can not provide proof of these flight capabilities to this day, although he knows an eyewitness who reported the following to him: “Shortly before the capitulation, on  April 24, 1945 a Staffel of four Flying Disks, each manned by two pilots (names unknown), started from the Berlin-Lichterfelde under heavy artillery barrage from both German and Russian sides for a goal unknown even today.”

Hein­rich Fleißner (76), born in Augsburg, and now living in a small village outside the city talks about his legendary machine like an auto mechanic about an engine. To him this revolutionary development is almost something commonplace and he only wonders “why there is no interest in it nowadays.” Of course he had to relinquish his patent to the Americans in 1954, without remuneration. The last detail, the total concept, however is still locked in his brain. Answering the question if he could still build a ‘Flying Saucer’ today, he said, “Saucers only fly inside the home – but, all joking aside, I believe it would be possible anytime.” The costs may be prohibitive, since “even then one of these aircrafts cost forty million Reichsmark.” He gave up on the idea of finding sponsors to present a model at the aviation show years ago. The phenomena also attracted the attention of the Messerschmitt Test pilot Fritz Wendel. The legendary world record holder, also a native of Augsburg had raised doubts that the technology of the 40s was capable of building aircrafts with such speeds. Some years later the District Attorney, according to Fleißner had to return the supporting documents – “without rebuttal”. Some easily understood technical details will make the ‘UFO’ comprehensible to the layman. The rounded tanks were filled separately with Hydrogen and Oxygen. Once the jets were open there was an explosive combustion – creating propulsion. While the outer disk rotated almost silently, the pilot’s cupola, with a 360 degree view, remained stationery. A landing of the ten-meter in diameter disk was possible everywhere, on land or water, without problems. The retractable undercarriage legs terminated in inflatable rubber cushions enabling swimming or soft landing. After the war, as per Fleißner, all documentation was destroyed by the Deutsche Wehrmacht. Only a few useless design drawings fell into the hands of the Russian occupation forces. If unidentified flying objects are observed today, they well be ‘descendants’ of Fleißner’s original idea. Thus the veil of the unknown continues to exist, since even Fleißner declares, “We do not know what’s hidden behind the Sun.”

This headline story was accompanied by a reprint of a patent drawing of a "Rotating Jet Aircraft with Lifting Disc Wing and Centrifuging Tanks" by an H. Fleissner. The submission was made on March 28, 1955 and received the US Patent number 2.939.648 on  June 7, 1960. Fleißner’s version is incorrect, whereby his patent was allegedly already filed 1929 in Germany, and led, supported by Göring, to the German Flugscheibe (with an unbelievable price tag of 40 million Reichsmark!) only to be taken from him by the Americans – after all the patent, from the beginning, was under his name. It looks more like he could not pay the appropriate patent fees and so simply registered his double-sided (!) patent in the United States.


In Search of Nazi Saucers
By: Nick Redfern

Both Canada and the United States in the 1950s had plans to build and fly UFO-like aircraft- Project Silver Bug. But they were not alone. A decade before, the Nazis were doing something very similar. That the Nazis had been working to perfect a circular-shaped aircraft that would broadly fit the classic flying saucer description is a theory that does have some merit.

The following US Air Force report of 3 January 1952 from Brigadier General W.M. Garland to General Samford, Air Force Director of Intelligence, full demonstrates this:

The continued reports of unusual flying objects requires positive action to determine the nature and origin of this phenomena.

It is logical to relate the reported sightings to the known development of aircraft, jet propulsion, rockets and range extension capabilities in Germany and the USSR. In this connection, it is to be noted that certain developments by the Germans, particularly the Horten wing, jet propulsion, and refueling, combined with their extensive employment of V-l and V-2 weapons during World War II, lend credence to the possibility that the flying objects may be of German and Russian origin. The developments mentioned above were completed and operational between 1941 and 1944 and subsequently fell into the hands of the Soviets at the end of the war. There is evidence that the Germans were working on these projects as far back as 1931 to 1938. Therefore it may be assumed that the Germans had at least a 7 to 10 year lead over the United States.

In 1954, according to the CIA:

A German newspaper (not further identified) recently published an interview with George Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of 'flying saucers' carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated that he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted 'flying saucer' took off and reached a speed of 1,300 miles per hour within 3 minutes. The experiments resulted in three designs: one designed by Miethe, was a disk-shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the center of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the 'flying saucer' project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants. Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the US at present.

Similarly, in 1947, a US citizen wrote the following letter to the FBI:

Recently I have heard and read about reports of disc-shaped aircraft, or whatever they are, in our Western regions. They reminded me of a nearly forgotten incident in Germany, after the war. I report this to you because I feel this may be of international scope. My buddy and I went on pass to see a friend of his. One evening the three of us were driving along some back roads when I sighted a strange-looking object in the sky from eight to ten miles to our front and approximately 5,000 feet high. I immediately stopped the jeep for a better look. The object rapidly came toward us, descending slowly. About a mile away it stopped its horizontal motion but continued a slow-oscillating descent similar to a descending parachute. Then it stopped in a spiral motion. Immediately I drove to where it had dropped. It took almost five minutes to reach the place but we saw nothing. After ten minutes of cruising around the area it became too dark to see so we went back to town. I am not sure my companions saw this because it happened so quickly it could easily have been missed, but I described what I had seen so vividly that they were as excited as I was. My first impression was that it was a cloud, but it was traveling at right angles to the wind. The locale of this incident was approximately 120 miles north west of Habberbishophiem. If necessary, I will swear to the authenticity of this and to the shape of the object.

In that same year, 1947, the FBI also interviewed Edwin M. Bailey of Stamford, Connecticut, on his theories about man-made UFOs.

According to the FBI:

Bailey prefaced his remarks by stating that he is a scientist by occupation and is currently employed at the American Cyanamid Research Laboratories on West Main Street in Stamford, Connecticut, in the Physics Division. Bailey further indicated that during the war he was employed at MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the Radiation Laboratory which Laboratory is connected with the Manhattan Project. Bailey advised that he is thirty years of age and is a graduate of the University of Arizona. Bailey stated that the topic of flying saucers had caused considerable comment and concern to the present day scientists and indicated that he himself had a personal theory concerning the flying saucers. Prior to advancing his own theory, Bailey remarked that immediately after the conclusion of World War II, a friend of his [censored], allegedly observed the flying saucers from an observatory in Milan and Bologna, Italy. He stated that apparently at that time the flying saucers had caused a little comment in Italy but that after some little publicity they immediately died out as public interest. Bailey stated that it is quite possible that actually the flying saucers could be radio controlled germ bombs or atom bombs which are circling the orbit of the earth and which could be controlled by radio and directed to land on any designated target at the specific desire of the agency or country operating the bomb.

In July 1952, the FBI was informed of the following that had a direct bearing on CIA knowledge of Soviet-designed UFOs:

[Source] said that more recent reports have been received from representatives of the Central Intelligence Agency in Southern Europe and Southern Asia to the effect that the Russians were experimenting with some type of radical aircraft or guided missile which could be dispatched for great distances out over the sea, made to turn in flight and return to the base from which it was launched. He related that this information was extremely worthy of notice as experiments in this country have so far only developed to the point where we are concerned with delivering a missile to the required point of impact and no consideration has been given to imparting to that missile the ability to return. [Source] also advised that it is a known fact that the Russians are attempting to develop some type of nuclear energy, that they received a wealth of information concerning nuclear energy at the time of their occupation in Germany, and that they have at their disposal a limited supply of fissionable materials. [Source] pointed out that the Russians have some very capable scientists in the field of atomic energy and that, in addition thereto, they took into their custody some of the most-advanced and capable scientists of the German nation.

Moving on to 1957, FBI agents in Detroit interviewed a man with knowledge of Nazi-built UFOs, who was… "born February 19, 1926, in the State of Warsaw, Poland, and was brought from Poland as a Prisoner of War to Gut Alt Golssen approximately 30 miles east of Berlin, Germany, in May, 1942, where he remained until a few weeks after the end of World War II. He spent the following years at Displaced Persons Camps at Kork, Strasburg, [sic] Offenburg, Milheim and Freiburg, Germany. He attended a radio technician school at Freiburg and for about a year was employed in a textile mill at Laurachbaden, Germany. He arrived in the United States at New York, May 2, 1951, via the 'SS General Stewart' as a Displaced Person. According to the man, during 1944, month not recalled, while enroute [sic] to work in a field a short distance north of Gut Alt Golssen, their tractor engine stalled on a road through a swamp area. No machinery or other vehicle was then visible although a noise was heard described as a high-pitched whine similar to that produced by a large electric generator. An 'SS' guard appeared and talked briefly with the German driver of the tractor, who waited five to ten minutes, after which the noise stopped and the tractor engine was started normally. Approximately 3 hours later in the same swamp area, but away from the road where the work crew was cutting 'hay', he surreptitiously, because of the German in charge of the crew and 'SS' guards in the otherwise deserted area, observed a circular enclosure approximately 100 to 150 yards in diameter protected from viewers by a tarpaulin-type wall approximately 50 feet high, from which a vehicle was observed to slowly rise vertically to a height sufficient to clear the wall and then to move slowly horizontally a short distance out of his view, which was obstructed by trees. This vehicle, observed from approximately 500 feet, was described as circular in shape, 75 to 100 yards in diameter, and about 14 feet high, consisting of dark gray stationary top and bottom sections, five to six feet high. The approximate three foot middle section appeared to be a rapidly moving component producing a continuous blur similar to an aeroplane propeller, but extending the circumference of the vehicle so far as could be observed. The noise emanating from the vehicle was similar but of somewhat lower pitch than the noise previously heard. The engine of the tractor again stalled on this occasion and no effort was made by the German driver to start the engine until the noise stopped, after which the engine started normally. Un-insulated metal, possibly copper, cables one and one-half inch to two inches in diameter, on and under the surface of the ground, in some places covered by water, were observed on this and previous occasions, apparently running between the enclosure and a small concrete column-like structure between the road and enclosure. This area was not visited by the man again until shortly after the end of World War II, when it was observed the cables had been removed and the previous locations of the concrete structure and the enclosure were covered by water. The man stated he has not been in communication since 1945 with any of the work crew of 16 or 18 men, consisting of Russian, French and Polish POWs, who had discussed this incident among themselves many times However, of these, he was able to recall by name only one, no address known, described as then about 50 years of age and presumed to have returned to Poland after 1945."

Another FBI document concerns a man who was interviewed at the Miami Office of the FBI on 26 April 1967. He stated:

Sometime during 1943, he graduated from the German Air Academy and was assigned as a member of the Luftwaffe on the Russian Front Near the end of 1944, he was released from this duty and was assigned as a test pilot to a top secret project in the Black Forest of Austria. During this period he observed the aircraft described above. It was saucer-shaped, about twenty-one feet in diameter, radio-controlled, and mounted several jet engines around the exterior portion of the craft. He further described the exterior portion as revolving around the dome in the center which remained stationary. It was his responsibility to photograph the object while in flight. He asserted he was able to retain a negative of a photograph he made at 7,000 meters (20,000 feet). According to him, the above aircraft was designed and engineered by a German engineer whose present whereabouts is unknown to him. He also assumed the secrets pertaining to this aircraft were captured by Allied Forces. He said this type of aircraft was responsible for the downing of at least one American B-26 airplane. He has become increasingly concerned because of the unconfirmed reports concerning a similar object and denials the United States has such an aircraft. He feels such a weapon would be beneficial in Vietnam and would prevent the further loss of American lives which was his paramount purpose in contacting the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Can the entire UFO mystery be explained as a result of the flights of classified and prototype aircraft of the type described above in official files? Or do we really have alien visitors? Or could the real answer be, incredibly, both?

Martin Caidin, in Black Thursday (1960), told of silver discs encountered during the 1943 Schweinfurt Raid. Archivists at the National Archives could not locate confirmation of this report. There are, however, other references to small silver discs.

Under the heading "Miscellaneous Phenomena," in a report of A-2 Section of the 42nd Bomb Wing, the following appears:

Also, on 18 October [1944], a shower of silver objects about the size of silver dollars was reported in the vicinity of Alfonsine. These objects were seen floating at 10,500 feet and descending very slowly.

In December 1944 the New York Times reported that American pilots over Germany were reporting silver spheres.

A spokesman at Army Air Force headquarters said that the only reports reaching Washington were from the newspapers and that no reports were received from the theater (New York Times, December 14 and 21, 1944).

Yet the XII Tactical Air Command's Intelligence Information Bulletin, No. 6, January 28, 1945, carries a report under the heading "Flak Developments":

There have however been several reports of the phenomenon which is described as "silver balls", seen mainly below 10,000 feet; tentative suggestions have been made as to their origin and purpose, but as yet no satisfactory explanation has been found.

The bulletin for June 4, 1945, discusses reports from Japan:

Mention has previously been made of German airborne controlled missiles Hs.298, Hs.293, X4 and Hs.117. Many reports have been received from Bomber Command crews of flaming missiles being directed at, and sometimes following the aircraft, suggesting the use of remote control and/or homing devices. It is known that the Germans kept their Japanese Allies informed of technical developments and the following report, taken verbatim from Headquarters, U. S. A. F. P. O. A. G.2 Periodic Report No. 67, further suggests that the Japanese are using similar weapons to those reported by our own crews:

During the course of a raid by Super-Fortresses on the Tachikawa aircraft plant, and the industrial area of Kawasaki, both in the Tokyo area, a number of Super-Fortresses reported having been followed or pursued by "red balls of fire" described as being approximately the size of a basketball with a phosphorescent glow. Some were reported to have tails of blinking light. These "balls" appeared generally out of nowhere, only one having been seen to ascend from a relatively low altitude to the rear of a B-29. No accurate estimate could be reached as to the distance between the balls and the B-29's. No amount of evasion of the most violent nature succeeded in shaking the balls. They succeeded in following the Super-Fortresses through rapid changes of altitude and speed and sharp turns, and held B-29s' courses through clouds. One B-29 reported outdistancing a ball only by accelerating to 295 mph, after which the pursuing ball turned around and headed back to land.

Individual pursuits lasted as long as six minutes, and one ball followed a Super-Fortress 30 miles out to sea. The origin of the balls is not known. Indication points to some form of radio-direction, either from the ground or following enemy aircraft. The apparent objective of the balls, no doubt, is destruction of the Super-Fortresses by contact. Both interception and AA [anti-aircraft] have proved entirely ineffective, the enemy has apparently developed a new weapon with which to attempt countering our thrusts.

Source: RAF, Fighter Command Intelligence and Operational Summary No. 30, dated May 15, 1945

A declassified US Army foo-fighter report states that an American infantry unit camped near the Mannheim Autobahn by night saw a number of "large glowing balls" coming in to land "in a small wood". Each appeared to be under independent control, wobbling rather like an aircraft. Beyond the small wood they disappeared from sight.

In another incident - pre-dating the archive release of the US document - on the Mannheim Autobahn towards the end of the war, a car driver found that his engine cut out suddenly. This also happened to all other car drivers on that stretch of the highway. Black-uniformed Gestapo arrived and lined the side of the road. [If all engines have stopped dead how did the Gestapo "arrive"?] Several unidentified flying objects flew overhead, probably having taken off from the small airfield at Neuostheim hidden behind a small wood. Shortly afterwards, the Gestapo warned occupants of all cars to say nothing of what they had seen, and after a few moments electrical transmission was restored.

The source was discovered and the true sequence of events was: Gestapo (actually regular troops) arrive, block the road and ask the driver to turn off the engine. This was because radar tests were being done (calibration IIRC) and they didn't want any extraneous electrical signals (from the car ignition) affecting the readings. After a period of time the driver would be allowed to proceed once the tests were complete. The "flying objects" are added embellishments by later (credulous) writers.

People near the military compounds where alleged disk technology was being developed reported sightings of "ghost ships". This was before the term UFO or flying saucer was used but many of the same events were happening in the late 30's and 40's in Germany. Some reports were probably the V1 and V2 rockets while other reports were said to be more similar to UFO sightings.

In a 1981 book by Nigel Pennick, Hitler's Secret Sciences, he describes events that were similar to what people would soon experience in South America and the United States in the 50's while encountering a UFO.

In 1938 on top of one of the peaks on the Hartz Mountains called the Broken a tower was erected. Another was erected on top of the Feldberg peak near Frankfurt.

At times cars traveling along the mountain roads would suddenly have the engine stall and the electronics died. They would be approached by a Lutwaffe guard who would tell them it was no use trying to start the car but he would let them know soon when they could.

This has all the evidence of experiments that are giving out intense EM (electro magnetic) pulses.

When the USAF 415th NFS and British intruder aircraft first encountered the German land-based and launched WNF Feuerball and AEG Kugelwaffen weapons in the skies over occupied France in late 1944 they were simply called "Fire Fighters" due to their intense glow or "burn" in the sky. In the WNF Feuerball this was the chemical burn ring that caused an intense electrostatic field at close proximity to the daylight bombers. With the AEG Kugelwaffen, the glow or burn was considered part of the propulsion system which was suspected of being a mercury-plasma type.

As word spread of these mystery weapons the word Fire got changed several times:

1) Since the "Fire Fighters" appeared over France, the French word for fire was adopted- "Feu Fighter"

2) Too complicated for the Allied airmen, the USAF changed that to "Foo"- a crude reference to the Smokey Stover comic of a bumbling fireman that actually started fires and had a catchphrase of "Where there's foo, there's fire". So, the mystery weapons became known as "Foo Fighters". The RAF simply called them Kraut Meteors instead.

3) To hide the fact that these were German weapons, US Intel designated them in official military documents as "PHOO BOMBS" starting in December 1944. This has foiled FOIA document researchers for decades until a declassifed 1944 document concerning possible German Capabilities in 1945 revealed the code words and matching precise description. Perhaps they labeled them BOMBS as many believed this was a flying flak weapon, or aerial mine... which later proved to be a false assumption.

U.S. government's own documents prove they knew of the German origin of foo fighters. This "Intelligence Digest" document, with a February, 1945 date, addresses German military capacities. It lists "Phoo Bombs" as a weapon in the German arsenal.

Taken from microfilm negative image:

Obtained in a freedom Of Information Act asking for more information after learning the government's code word for foo fighters ("Phoo Bombs")  

Renato Vesco  - this Italian aeronautical technician claimed modern "flying saucers" are the Anglo-Canadian development of very advanced German projects, namely the circular crafts,"Feuerball" and "Kugelblitz."

Vesco and his impressive documentation have been often used by many later authors in order to try to substantiate their claims

The very first book of Renato Vesco was published in 1968, but the original manuscript was ready since 1956. Because of job engagements he stopped its publication and went on collecting more material. So he had enough material to write three large books.

The first one had a Spanish edition and two in US (1971, Grove and 1974, Zebra), soon becoming a reference work for most authors and researchers writing about the highly controversial subject of German "flying saucers". In 1994, the book was nearly fully reprinted within a book edited by D.Childress Man-Made UFOs 1944-1994.

The author was born in Arona in 1924. He died in November 1999 in Genoa, the town where he had been living for many years. For some years he was writing a new manuscript to publish a fourth "ultimate" book.

The huge archive of Vesco has been retrieved safely and is now preserved from destruction. The inventory should allow to find and evaluate some of the original sources used by the author.

The third book by Renato Vesco is a thick 553-page volume loaded with a real wealth of info. On the ground of some late war German projects (ie. the Norwegian-based development of the original Belluzzo's blueprints and the German atom bomb project) and post-war British breakthroughs in aeronautics and astronautics, he pointed out a fascinating but hard-to-believe scenario:

British spaceships had been built after blueprints and technology captured in Germany and flown since 1947. In 1951 they landed on the Moon and in 1954 they reached Mars. Though these claims look quite unlikely and unsubstantiated, most of the evidence and sources offered by Vesco lead to some interesting considerations about German secret technology and some late '40s and '50s UFO sightings.
Following the Canadian Avro Car project rumours, many magazines of the early '50s published news about soon-to-come man-made "flying saucers". Vesco found in these rumours more background for his theory.

A lot of people like to cite Renato Vesco as a source of 'reputable information'. This is largely based on the belief that he was supposed to have been was a licensed pilot and a fully-licensed aircraft engineer, who specialised in aerospace and ramjet developments.

The same biographers frequently claimed that he attended the University of Rome and, before World War II, studied at the German Institute for Aerial Development; and that during the war he worked with the Germans at Fiat’s secret Lake Garda installations, in Italy.

He is said to have become a senior member of the Italian Association of Aerotechnics in 1943 and, in 1944, to have commanded the technical section of the Italian Air Force. In 1946–47 Vesco, served in the Reparto Tecnico Caccia and during the 1960s, worked for the Italian Air Ministry of Defense as an undercover technical agent, investigating the UFO mystery.

Unfortunately, Vesco was born in 1924. World War II started in 1939. So

• How could he have attended the University of Rome and studied at the German Institute for Aerial Development by the time he was 14 or 15 years old?

• How likely is it that he was a senior member of the Italian Association of Aerotechnics since the ripe old age of 18 or 19?

• How did he come to command 'the technical section of the Italian Air Force' by the time he was 19 or 20 years old?

Maurizio Verga — who actually met Vesco — gives a quite different accounting of Vesco's life and activities:

• Between 1942 and 1944, he submitted a 50-page proposal for a stratospheric fast jet-fighter to the Luftwaffe in Gallarate. His tender was tacitly rebuffed.

• In 1943 he joined the MVSN, presumably to fight the Allied invasion of his homeland. Not long after, though, Italy capitulated.

• He promptly volunteered for the Air Force of the ‘Repubblica di Salò‘. Instead of becoming a pilot, however, he was immediately put to work in an office, as a bookkeeper. He was only allowed to fly toward the end of the war, when the situation grew sufficiently desperate.

• After the war, he joined the new Italian Air Force. In spite of the fact that he had actually flown in combat, he was made a private. As such, he was stationed at the Galatina airfield, near Lecce in southern Italy, until July 1947.

• Between 1956 and the early 1960s, he worked as an engine technician aboard various merchant ships.

• He returned to Genoa in the mid-1960s, where he lived as a recluse until the day he died.

Zero Point and All That

Nick Cook's 2001 book The Hunt for Zero Point was unprecedented. Here was the Aviation Editor of Jane's Defence Weekly, the most reputable defense-industry publication in the world, asserting that flying saucers were real, that they used advanced anti-gravity technology, and that they were a follow-on of German research conducted during World War II. Cook had either turned into a lunatic fringe kook, or had blown the lid off the greatest military secret in the world.

Yet the world seemed to pay the book little attention. There were no recriminations. Cook continued his work as a distinguished writer on defense matters. What is one to make of this?

First, to summarize Cook's conclusions and a quick assessment of each point:

• Flying saucer technology, as first described by Rudolf Lusar, was perfected during World War II, by Richard Miethe, probably including flight tests. The work was conducted in enormous secrecy under SS General Kammler. Assessment: Possible, for a turbojet-powered, saucer-shaped craft.
• An antigravity drive for saucers was developed in the same period by Austrian Viktor Schauberger and tested at Wenceslas Mine, Ludwigsdorf, in what is now Poland. Assessment: Unlikely, and the 'test rig' Cook viewed at the mine has been shown conclusively to have been merely a Third-Reich-standard water tower base.
• After the war the German technology was taken on by the Americans. Assessment: Likely.
• There were separate American home-grown "antigravity" developments. Those publicly known included Thomas Townsend Brown's Philadelphia Experiment in 1943 and his public work in the late 1950's. Assessment: This is undeniable, but it has not been shown that Brown's effect was actually antigravity or led anywhere.
• Kammler actually led the postwar developments in America in great secrecy, or at least the American system of deep black technology development was taken on from the SS. Assessment: Neither allegation seems anything but speculation.
• Avro Canada developed the German saucer technology on behalf of the Americans. Assessment: This seems nearly undeniable, at least if you're talking about the turbojet-powered version (Silverbug). It also seems to have led to a dead end, having no overwhelming advantage over conventional turbojet designs.
• The US government has been flying prototype saucers with some type of antigravity drive using quantum zero-point energy for decades…. but the technology has proven difficult to master. The only operational application so far has been a kind of anti-gravity field that boosts the performance of the B-2 bomber far beyond published data. Cook makes some technical arguments here in regard to the B-2's low thrust/weight ratio and range. Assessment: Northrop's original flying wing (or any pure-wing) design has similarly outstanding performance parameters, without the need of invoking antigravity.
• There is a vast black development apparatus in the United States devoted to research on this topic. Lurid tales of ships disappearing during the Philadelphia Experiment, of aliens and crashed alien saucers at Area 51, are products of US government disinformation campaigns to cover this work. Assessment: it does seem very likely that a lot of saucer lore is the result of US government disinformation operations.

In the end, Cook's book seems to be a tour of a wilderness of mirrors of which his book is an integral part. It seems more like a disinformation exercise, designed to take the focus off whatever is really going on, or at least add greatly to the background noise that is keeping the truth obscured. Whether that truth is conventional black aircraft, alien spaceships, or as Cook asserts, American antigravity technology - who can say? The whole point of disinformation is to make the truth unknowable.

The other leading defense publication, Aviation Week and Space Technology, is also subject to leaks every few years on exotic (albeit non-Nazi, non-antigravity) aircraft. None of these aircraft ever seems to be made public or become operational. None of them is remembered by the time the next breathless article appears. And, sixty years after research is said to have begun, flying saucers are not filling our skies…

One is left to wonder if in fact all of this disinformation is just to cover the greatest embezzlement of government funds in history… 

The Nazi Saucers

There is an Internet-driven legend of secret research sites and gravity shields, of captured technology and black budget ops.

A legend easily consigned to conspiracy theory... were not one of it's main proponents also an Aviation Editor at Jane's Defence Weekly, the world's most respected and authoritative publication on military technology.

The first claim of flying saucers being the result of German research came -- conveniently enough -- just two weeks after the sighting by Kenneth Arnold had led to a frenzy of nationwide reports, culminating in the announcement of a crashed disk recovered at Roswell.

It arrived in the form of a July 11, 1947 letter from a Dr. T. Kelterborn, who according to his letterhead was presently a dentist...

To The American Civil Governor in Frankfurt

In the Dortmund Newspaper, Westphalian Overview, of 9 July 1947, I read an interesting article about so called 'flying saucers,' which were seen above the ground in greater numbers over about 30 US States, which supposedly reached speeds of 1900 km hr. and whose appearance have caused great unrest among the US population.

Since the governing and research institutions of the US don't want to know anything about the origin of these flying saucers, I would like, as the inventor of these apparatuses, to announce myself to the US Administration.

I handed over my invention in 1944 to a German Inventors office, whose headquarters, as I understood, was in Berlin. For my submission, including rough sketches of the construction site in Bochum, I never received a response, nor was I ever apprised by the technical test office in Berlin.

My work must have been further developed in Berlin.

When the Russians marched into Berlin, my completed invention must have landed in the hands of a foreign military power, which is now using them over the US.

As the inventor, I alone am in the position, under certain circumstances, to reveal my invention.

Should the US authorities be interested in my invention, I am ready to provide information.

The authorities were not interested, as it turned out.

The next claim -- according to a 1950 army intelligence memo -- was made at the Darmstadt internment camp in 1948. According to Special Agent Charles Wolkonowski, he had had a chance conversation with a German by the name of Georg Stalling...

During a conversation with Source the undersigned brought up the subject of Flying Saucers and Source made the statement that he had heard of Flying Saucers as far back as 1948.

Wolkonowski's memo gave the substance of the conversation that followed...

In approximately January 1948, three (3) or (4) lectures had been given in the DARMSTADT (L50/M65) Internment Camp, on the Subjects of "Flying Saucers" and German "V2" rockets, which had allegedly been under construction by Germany, during the war on the Islands of USEDOM (N54/L10) and WOLLIN (N54/034). The persons giving these lectures had allegedly worked on both of the above projects and had discussed and explained fully the various formulas and technical points of both of those projects.

These lectures were attended by approximately fifty (50) persons who were allegedly carefully screened out of the one-thousand (1000) inmates of the camp. Due to the fact that at that time, lectures of any nature had to be officially posted on bulletin boards, the "cover" topic chosen for these lectures had been "Journey to Mars and the Moon".

The name of the person who had given these lectures is unknown, but his available data is the following: Approximately 40 years of age, 6'2" tall, oval face, dark hair. This person also had a Doctor's title and had been an SS Hauptsturmführer or an SS Sturmbannführer. This man had allegedly been released from the DARMSTATD Internment Camp in May 1948.

The following persons had allegedly attended these lectures:

a. Professor, Doctor (fou) BOHM (BÖHM), pathologist, formerly from the University of JENA (M51/J66) had been released from the DARMSTADT Internment Camp in August, 1948. Present whereabouts unknown.

b. Doctor, med. Fritz BETHGE, living at Domplatz 5, FRITZLAR (L52/HO8).

c. Doctor Med. Max FINK, former Chief of Medicine for BRANDENBURG (N53/Z23) left the DARMSTADT Internment camp in January 1948 for WIESBADEN (K51/M36).

d. Professor, Doctor, Med. (fou) WEHRFRITZ, currently living in MIDDA (L51/G90) Kreis Budingen.

e. Doctor Hans HEYANK, researcher living in DARMSTADT.

As far as is known, no follow-up to the report was ever made.

Curiously, another 1950 report made by another army intelligence agent again reflected a chance encounter with a man -- this time in a library -- producing another claim for German invention of the saucers...

The following information was given to this Agent by 1st Lt. Fredric B. FRANKLIN, 01309614, Hqs 555 Engineer Group, APO 175, U.S. Army. Lt. FRANKLIN is a pilot assigned to this organization: While visiting the [ILLEGIBLE] Staff School Library in [ILLEGIBLE] recently Lt. FRANKLIN noticed the Librarian, a MILLER or MÜLLER, (fou) reading a highly technical Magazine or Manual pertaining to Guided Missiles. When Lt. FRANKLIN engaged the man in conversation he was told by MILLER or MÜLLER that he (MILLER or MÜLLER) had invented the flying saucers. He had worked on them during the Third Reich, he said, but later left Germany and lived in an undisclosed foreign country until the end of the war. He returned to Germany four (4) years ago and has been working for the Americans ever since. He stated further that he had worked for a Capt JOHNSON and attempted to enlist his, Capt JOHNSON's, aid in getting his invention tested by the American authorities. The Americans, he claimed, were not interested. MILLER or MÜLLER then said he has recently written two letters to two other foreign powers concerning his invention, but as yet has received no answers. MÜLLER or MILLER claims his invention is much better than that in the Americans possession because of an injection system which keeps the missile from freezing up at high speeds. Although Lt. FRANKLIN considers MÜLLER or MILLER a "Crack Pot", he stated that the man seemed to know a great deal about modern American Aircraft, such as only an engineer would know.

The following description of MÜLLER or MILLER was given:

Height: five (5) feet seven (7) inches
Weight: one hundred and forty (140) to fifty (150) pounds
Age: between fifty (50) and sixty (60) years old
Hair: partially bald; color, medium brown
Other: wears heavy metal rimmed glasses; talks with lisp

That same year, 1950, similar allegations would hit the press and start the launch of the legend into the public domain.

The first public allegation of German scientists having worked on flying discs during the war came five years after the defeat of the Nazis, in a March 24, 1950 story in the Los Angeles Mirror...

Flying discs 'Old Story' says Italian

ROME, March 24 (AP) -- An Italian scientist said today that types of flying discs were designed and studied in Germany and Italy as early as 1942.

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, he added, were interested in the instruments, and the idea was developed concurrently both in Italy and Germany.

Flying discs or saucers have been reported sighted recently in many parts of the world. There has been no scientific confirmation of the existence of such things, nor any universally accepted explanation of what their purpose might be.

The Italian scientist, Giuseppe Belluzzo, noted Italian authority on projectiles and cannons and builder in 1905 of the first steam turbine in Italy, made his declarations in Rome's independent Giornale d'Italia.

Frequent Reports

"There is nothing supernatural or Martian about flying discs," he said, "but they are simply rational application of recent technique."

Prof. Belluzzo expressed the opinion that some great power is launching discs to study them.

Reports of flying discs in Italian skies have been frequent. The latest report came last night from Northern Turin, where several persons said they saw a saucer speeding across the moon-lit sky leaving a fiery trail.

A slightly different and more ominous version appeared that same day in the Olean, New York Times-Herald...

Flying Saucer Designs Given To Il Duce And Hitler In 1942

ROME Italy -- Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo, seventy-three year-old Italian turbine engineer, said today that designs for "flying saucers" were prepared for Hitler and Mussolini in 1942.

"According to those designs," he said in an interview, "the discs could carry a cargo of explosives of any kind -- and today an atomic bomb -- to destroy entire cities."

Of the present rash of reports of "flying saucers," which the United States Air Force has declared are without foundation in fact, Belluzzo said:

"It has passed my mind that some great power is experimenting with flying discs -- without explosives or atomic bombs.

"There is nothing supernatural or Martian about flying discs. It's just the most rational use of recently-evolved techniques."

Belluzzo said he personally had drafted plans for a "flying disc" thirty-two feet in diameter, but claimed they disappeared with Benito Mussolini when he fled to Northern Italy in 1943.



Belluzzo's idea of a circular turbo-powered aircraft

The "pipes" installed on the edge of the disc had a variable diameter.
The air accelerated when flowing through them.
In the largest section of each pipe some oil was sprayed and then ignited.
The temperature rose quickly and at the end of the pipe the air reached a speed around 700 meters/sec. able to supply a 400 meters/sec. rotation speed to the whole circular aircraft.
When the oil gone, the craft fell quickly down to the ground with its explosive payload.

Anther version reported the unmanned craft as a "Flak weapon".

 "Both Hitler and Mussolini were interested in flying discs," he said. "The idea was born in Italy about the same time it was heard of in Germany.

"The principle of the flying disc is very simple. Its construction is easy and can be done with very light metal."

The missiles could be aimed like the war-time German V-2 rockets, he said, and would descend when the fuel was exhausted, or cut off by an automatic timing device. No human pilot would be required.

Two years later Professor Belluzzo died, never having said very much more about the subject.

Less than a week following Belluzzo's claim, on March 30, 1950, Germany's Der Spiegel published a feature about the wave of UFO sightings across the world.

The story contained another allegation of German work on flying saucers, by way of an interview with a German named Rudolf Schriever, who claimed to have designed a flying spinning disc more than 40 meters in diameter. Schriever claimed he had worked on the disc from a base in Czechoslovakia in 1942, and that the design reached completion in 1945, just before the Russians marched in.

Elusive on proof and details -- he claimed his original blueprints had been stolen -- he stated that after the war he had met with 'representatives of foreign powers' who had shown much interest in his design.

A week later, Schriever's story appeared in the U.S. press. From the April 2, 1950, edition of the Lima, Ohio News:

Ex-Luftwaffe Flier Offers To Build 'Saucer'

FRANKFURT. Apr. 1 (INS) -- A German aircraft designer who says that engineers throughout the world in the early '40s experimented with "flying saucers" offered today to build a "workable prototype" for the United States.

Former Luftwaffe Capt. Rudolf Schriever made the offer in a telephone interview with International News Service.

He called his version of the "flying saucer" a "flying top" and predicted it would be capable of a maximum speed of 2,600 miles an hour with a radius of 4,000 miles.

The 40-year-old graduate of the University of Prague said that he made blueprints for such a machine before the collapse of Germany in World War II, but that they were stolen from his laboratory by persons unknown.

He said that duplicates of his blueprints were given to colleagues in Prague for safe-keeping and he presumed that they are now in the hands of the Soviets, enabling them or another nation to make a "saucer."

Schriever, who is now a driver for the United States Army in Bremerhaven, said that he could build a workable model "within six or nine months providing the military security board authorizes facilities."

The ex-officer expressed surprise over world speculation on the nature of the oft-reported -- though never proved -- "saucers."

He said: "The publicized craft are assuredly United States experimental craft and perhaps of other nations as well, but certainly are not pipe dreams or visitors from Mars."

Schriever said that his "flying top" version would consist of three co-axially mounted sections able to rotate independently.

The control cabin, he said, would be in the upper section of the main gondola section. Beneath the lower gondola would be a rotating cartwheel-like affair forming a hub 14 yards in diameter with three-yard-long paddles in place of spokes.

Three starting jets would be slung beneath this "cartwheel" to set off the rotation. The hot gasses given off by the jets, Schriever added, would give the impression of "balls of fire" in flight.

He estimated that each gondola of his "flying top" would weigh about three tons and would be nearly 12 feet wide and just under 11 feet in height.

Schriever said that the ship would be able to ascend at a little better than 300 feet per second and that the "paddles" would revolve at a rate of 1,650 revolutions per minute giving the ship a top speed of 2,600 miles an hour and a radius of 4,000 miles.

In terms of the Schriever discplane there is no way that a pilot could have flown the aircraft at high speed in a standing position although it is understood that the 1950 picture was an artists impression. I would expect that in an aircraft attempting to overcome speeds approaching the supersonic regime (or as we are told; the high Mach regime!) the only solution, and one favoured by several of the better German aerodynamicists and designers would be to put the pilot in a prone position. This was also suggested specifically for the flight involving high 'g' turns expected from the more advanced AVRO discplanes and various other advanced aircraft of the mid-1950s. (Prone position had also been tested in the Lockheed F-80E and a variant of the B-17 bomber. This work was undertaken by a 'Paperclip' scientist Dr. Hans Amtmann at Wright Field.)

In terms of Vertical take-off and landing, which requires great control at low speed, the only way for a pilot in this position, or in a seated position, would be to see through an inset window in the floor of the aircraft.

The large bubble cockpit shown in the picture would be a killer in terms of high speed flight and a blended design would be expected.

-- Tim Matthews

It would take another interview two years later for Schriever to claim that he had actually produced and tested a working model in 1942 as well as a full-scale prototype in 1945, which he then claimed had flown successfully before the end of the war.

Schriever is thought to have died in 1953, though a witness later reported sighting him in Bavaria around 1965. In any case, there his personal part of this story ends -- though it would grow far more detailed in the legends to come.

A 1975 Luftfahrt International Report noted that after Shriever’s death in the late 1950s, papers found amongst his belongings revealed incomplete notes for a large flying saucer, a series of sketches of the machine and several newspaper clippings of himself and his alleged flying saucer. Up to his death, Schriever had repeatedly claimed that the UFO sightings since the end of the war were proof that his original ideas had been taken further with successful results.

At about the same time that Rudolf Schriever was enlarging his story to claim the successful flight of a prototype, another German, calling himself Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe, stepped forward to say he was the lead designer of a German team tasked with developing a flying disc.

The first mention of Dr. Miethe can be traced to a June 27, 1952, article in the France Soir. He claimed his saucer flew in late 1944.

Like Rudolf Schriever, Miethe had no documentation of his claims, and stated all his coworkers had either died or been captured by the Soviets. Left unsaid was that this meant no one could corroborate his account.

Miethe, however, said he had a pictures of a test flight, later published in an Italian newspaper in September, 1952.

And Miethe, at least, may have had more credibility in his verifiable credentials as a rocket engineer than the self-proclaimed Schriever. The interview in France Soir had started with a story about the expulsion of a German team of rocket engineers from Egypt...

TEL-AVIV, June (special to "France-Soir") A group of German experts on "V-weapons", who were working for the Egyptian government in the manufacture of radio-controlled missiles, were very recently expelled by the authorities of Cairo. These specialists of the Physikalische Arbeitsgemeinschaft (PAG), headed by Dr. Kurt Fuellner and Mr. Herman Plitzken, had refused to deliver, after the completion of their work, their secret plans to Egypt.

After several unfruitful attempts, the authorities confiscated all the goods and the personal effects of the German scientists and refused to pay them the arrears of their wages as long as they refused to deliver the documents.

A short time thereafter, the police made it known to some of the Germans that they had no legal right to be in Egypt, Germany not yet having diplomatic relations. The team leaders returned at once to Hamburg, where they charged a lawyer with raising a protest at the United Nations against Egypt for "swindle and ill treatment".

This much of the story is at least partially corroborated in an article titled 'Ballistic missile development in Egypt' published in Jane's Intelligence Review in October 1992...

-- 1951: As part of the program to modernize Egypt's military in the wake of defeat in the 1947-49 war with Israel, Egyptian Premier Mustafa Nahas initiates a program to build military rockets in Egypt. Egypt contracts German armaments expert Dr. Wilhelm Voss to oversee the program and hires a firm owned by Herr Fuellner that employs several German rocket experts. The experts begin developing a small rocket, probably solid fueled, with a range of several kilometers.

-- March 1952: Having achieved some progress in the design of a tactical rocket, Egypt begins considering production of a longer-range guided missile. However... difficulty in acquiring high-quality steel, propellants and fuses, cause the delay of the guided rocket program and the eventual cancellation of the tactical rocket program. Tests of the rocket developed for Egypt by Herr Fuellner's firm are unsatisfactory, and Egypt proposes that the firm be put under government control. Herr Fuellner refuses and is forced to leave the country along with some of the German experts.

So the article in Jane's Intelligence Review at least corroborates that there had been a German team under the supervision of 'Herr Fuellner', forced to leave Egypt about the same time as in the article in France Soir.

The France Soir story goes on to describe Miethe's alleged role in the development of a Nazi saucer...

Some of these experts, who collaborated to one degree or another in the manufacture of these rockets, fled to Tel-Aviv. One of them is Doctor Richard Miethe, 40 years old, ex-colonel and scientist for the Third Reich, and aeronautical engineer. A few days before the German surrender, Doctor Miethe managed to escape the front by aircraft. He joined the Arab Legion in Addis-Ababa and Cairo, where many Nazi senior officers are currently residing (including many under Allied death sentences).

Doctor Miethe claims to have worked, from April 1943, as the head of a group of technicians of the Tenth Reich Army, in Essen, Stettin and Dortmund, where the principal research for German secret weapons was carried out. The first V-1 and V-2's were delivered from these factories.

For seven years, Dr. Miethe has sought to reconstruct the plans of an exceptional machine which he built with six other engineers (of which three have died and the other three are being held by the Russians beyond the Urals). In his opinion, it is this apparatus which the press persists in calling "flying saucers".

The story continues with Miethe's first-hand account of his alleged work on a flying disc...

The engines of the weapons which I designed in Germany, in collaboration with other engineers, were taken by the Soviet troops from the underground arsenals at Breslau.

One of the engines was intended for a supersonic helicopter. The appearance of this apparatus, at a distance of several thousand meters, could, without magnifying glasses, more or less resemble the saucer of a set of table ware. In fact, a helicopter is very different, in its structure as well as its form.

To describe it in common terms, this apparatus has the exact shape of an Olympic discus, an immense metal disc of circular form, with a diameter of approximately forty-two meters. More than twenty months of experiments, continually revised designs, and extremely complicated studies of gyroscopy and innumerable tests, which resulted in the death of 18 pilots, were necessary to build these machines.

The problem was that of finding the ideal aerodynamic form that could break the sound barrier, and easily transport bombs to ranges of over 20,000 km, guided by radio and radar, and driven by means of a compressed gas based on helium. 22 cubic meters this gas were enough to maintain an average of sixteen hours of flight.The principle of propulsion was, roughly speaking, that of the jet, but instead of two, or four, or eight turbines, the apparatus uses twelve of them, laid out at equal distances inside a moving metal ring, turning around the central mass. There are neither visible flames nor smoke, because the gases coming from combustion are recovered by an extremely clever compression system, discovered in 1938 by a British engineer.

The first conclusive flights were accomplished above the Baltic, three days exactly after the beginning of the offensive by von Runstedt in the Belgian Ardennes, and with greatest success. But it was only when Patton's army succeeded in crossing the Rhine that Hitler, warned by Marshal Keitel of the long range of this apparatus, which we had by then named the V-7, decided to undertake mass production in the underground factories of the south of Germany.

An interesting section from
'Introduction to Secret German Flying Discs of World War Two'
published by the German Research Project:

This V-7 project was headed by Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe, known in the literature simply as "Dr. Richard Miethe". He was assisted by the Italian scientist, Dr. Giuseppe Bellonzo [Belluzzo], a specialist in jet engines and metallurgy. Dr. Miethe produced many different saucer-like designs during the early 1940's with many different power plants. Some seemed to combine characteristics of saucers and flying wings.

But more exotic designs existed. One was based on a completely new type of jet fuel invented for the V-7 by an Austrian physicist, Dr. Karl Nowak, German Patent #905-847, March 16, 1943. Another design involved mounting an A-4 (V-2) engine underneath the V-7 giving it an estimated top speed of 4,000 km per hour.

The most interesting engine design, however, may have involved burning nothing but "air" itself. There is a rumor that the Germans tested a reciprocating engine, (like an automobile engine), which used atmospheric oxygen to oxidize atmospheric nitrogen. This was said to have involved very high voltage sparks to produce temperatures near 50,000 degrees within the combustion chamber. A similar event occurs with lightning. Lightning simply burns the air surrounding it leaving a vacuum which collapses suddenly upon itself producing the sound we call thunder. This engine was to do the same but, in addition to this, was to inject super-cold liquid helium directly into the combustion chamber. Helium is an inert gas. It does not burn. For years claims by the Germans that the V-7 was powered by helium were cited as evidence that the whole concept was a hoax. Now, after learning of the work of Dr. Nowak, we know that this very cold liquid could have been injected into this combustion chamber for purposes of cooling that combustion chamber and also to causing a tremendous expansion as it was heated thus aiding in production of motive force of the engine itself.

A copy of the plans was in the personal files of Keitel at Bad-Gandersheim, in the Harz Mountains, close to Hanover. At the time of their advance into this area, the Americans were advised of the existence of these military secrets and tore apart the castle from cellar to roof. They at least could have recovered their expenses, but did not discover, in the walled cellars, tens of thousands of boxes of silk stockings.

The Russians were luckier, getting their hands on the engines, and capturing three of my colleagues. I therefore assert, that if flying saucers are in the skies, they were built in Germany, as developed under my orders, and probably reproduced by Germans in chains in Soviet captivity.

But was Miethe part of the German group in Egypt? No proof is provided, no quotes included from members of the German team, most of whom the article states moved back to Germany -- while Miethe made the intriguing choice of taking up residence in Tel Aviv.

And the article in Jane's Intelligence Review describes the work as involving a small tactical missile 'probably solid fueled, with a range of several kilometers' -- hardly the stuff of disc-shaped supersonic helicopters.

In any case, French and Italian news reports on Miethe, containing the same basic information, would be published for several more months. Then Miethe disappeared from the scene.

It would be another four years before Miethe would re-emerge as part of the legend, but in an altogether new role.

Eight months after the France Soir article on Miethe, another self-proclaimed engineer who allegedly worked on the German flying discs stepped forward.

On April 25, 1953, Germany's Welt am Sonntag published an interview with a man calling himself Georg Klein under the headline Erste 'Flugscheibe' flog 1945 in Prag enthüllt Speers Beauftragter (translation: 'First 'flying disc' flew in 1945 in Prague reveals Speer Officer').

Though an English translation of Georg Klein's interview in Welt am Sonntag is not available, a subsequent article in Athen's I Vrdayni was published three weeks later, and may have been a wire service version of the Welt am Sonntag piece.

We find that text in -- of all places -- a declassified CIA memo which appears to be a standard form, with the preprinted heading 'INFORMATION FROM FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROADCASTS'...

German Engineer States Soviets Have German Flying Saucer Experts and Plans - Athens, I Vrdayni, May 13, 1953

Vienna (Special Service) -- According to recent reports from Toronto, a number of Canadian Air Force engineers are engaged in the construction of a "flying saucer' to be used as a future weapon of war. The work of these engineers is being carried out in great secrecy at the A.V. Roe Company factories.

Flying saucers have been known to be an actuality since the possibility of their construction was proven in plans drawn up by German engineers toward the end of World War II.

Georg Klein, a German engineer, stated recently that though many people believe the flying saucers to be a postwar development, they were actually in the planning stage in German aircraft factories as early as 1941.

Klein said that he was an engineer in the Ministry of Speer and was present in Prague on February 14, 1945, at the first experimental flight of a flying saucer.

During the experiment, Klein reported, the flying saucer reached an altitude of 12,000 meters within 3 minutes and a speed of 2,200 kph. Klein emphasized that in accordance with German plans, the speed of these saucers would reach 4,000 kph. One difficulty, according to Klein, was the problem of obtaining the materials to be used for the construction of the saucers, but even this had been solved by German engineers toward the end of 1944, and construction of the objects was scheduled to begin, Klein added.

Klein went on to state that three experimental models had been readied for tests by the end of 1944, built according to two completely different principles of aerodynamics. One type actually had the shape of a disc, with an interior cabin, and was built by the Miethe factories, which had also built the V-2 rockets. This model was 42 meters in diameter. The other model had a shape of a ring, with raised sides and a spherically shaped pilot's cabin placed on the outside, in the center of the ring. This model was built at the Haubermohl and Schriever factories.

Both models had the ability to take off vertically and to land in an extremely restricted area, like helicopters.

During the last few days of the war, when every hope for German victory had been abandoned, the engineers in the group stationed in Prague carried out orders to destroy completely all their plans on their model before the Soviet forces arrived. The engineers at the Miethe factories in Breslau, however, were not warned in sufficient time of the Soviet approach, and the Soviets therefore succeeded in seizing their material. Plans, as well as specialized personnel, were immediately sent directly to the Soviet Union under heavy guard, coincidental with the departure from Berlin of the creator of the Stuka, who later developed the Mig-13 and -15 in the Soviet Union.

According to the report, nothing is known of the whereabouts of Haubermohl since his disappearance form Prague; Schriever died recently in Bremen; and Miethe, who escaped in a Messerschmitt 163, is in the US.

Klein was of the opinion that the saucers are at present being constructed in accordance with German technical principles and expressed the belief that they will constitute serious competition to the jet-propelled airplanes.

Klein further stated that it was very possible to construct flying saucers for civilian air travel; they could carry 30-40 passengers at a speed of 4,000 kph. He added, however, that the tremendous amount of material necessary for their construction did not warrant their being built exclusively for civilian air travel. His opinion was shared, he stated, by Giuseppe Belluzzo, the Italian specialist with whom Klein has been corresponding for some time.

The story basically rehashed and embellished the Belluzzo, Schriever, and Miethe accounts already published, with Klein placing himself into the mix.

Of note here is the introduction of an engineer named Haubermohl, as a contemporary and competitor with Schriever. Haubermohl's provenance in this tale is unknown, but there is no known purported first-hand account by anyone of that name, and his part probably extends back to the various embellished stories published earlier. And in later versions of the tale the name would become 'Habermohl', dropping the 'u' in the CIA version of Klein's account.

In any case, the tale has Haubermohl conveniently captured by the Soviets, and never heard from again.

And once again, there was no proof or corroboration provided for Klein's tale, though Klein offered himself as corroboration for the earlier accounts.

But it would be three more years before the tale fully blossomed into the mainstream, through the publication of a well-received book.

The Legend would continue only in occasional stories in Italian and German newspapers -- substantially restating the Schriever, Miethe and Klein accounts -- and in anonymous pamphlets published in the next few years which proclaimed flying discs as a German weapon, providing much embellishment to the story along the way.

But it would burst into the mainstream in 1956, when a book by a man calling himself 'Major Rudolf Lusar' was published first in German, then translated into editions around the world.

The book received the following review by Reuters as published in the Washington Post on February 18, 1957:

Hitler's Arms Chief Tells of Plan to Bomb U.S. By Super-Plane, Says Reich Had Flying Saucers

(Reuters) MUNICH, West Germany, Feb. 17 - Nazi Germany developed flying saucers that flew more than 1000 miles an hour and a bomber that could attack the United States and return without refueling, it was revealed today.

These and other details of Hitler's efforts to achieve a "wonder weapon" that would turn the tide of World War II in its closing stages are revealed authoritatively in a book called "The German Weapons and Secret Weapons of World War II and Their Development," by Rudolf Lusar, who during the war was head of the Technical Arms Department of the German War Ministry.

The flying saucers, designed by three German engineers and an Italian, were 138 feet in diameter. The first one flew February 14, 1945, at Prague, and reached a height of more than 40,000 feet and a speed of 1250 miles per hour...

In his book, Lusar said the weapons helped bolster Nazi Propaganda Minister Josef Göbbels in his fanatical belief that a "wonder weapon" would turn the tide at the last minute...

But in fact, Lusar only claimed to have been an engineer in the Reichs Patent office, basing his book on patents he said had passed his way.

And for someone stuck in a patent office far from the events he claimed, he managed to cram quite a bit of detail into the two pages he devoted to the Nazi saucer program:

Experts and collaborators in this work confirm that the first projects, called "flying discs", were undertaken in 1941. The designs for these "flying discs" were drawn up by the German experts Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe, and the Italian Bellonzo. Habermohl and Schriever chose a wide-surface ring which rotated round a fixed, cupola-shaped cockpit. The ring consisted of adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off or horizontal flight respectively. Miethe developed a discus-shaped plate of a diameter of 42m in which adjustable jets were inserted. Schriever and Habermohl, who worked in Prague, took off with the first "flying disc" on February 14, 1945. Within three minutes they climbed to an altitude of 12.400 meters and reached a speed of 2.000 km/h in horizontal flight! It was intended ultimately to achieve speeds of 4,000 km/h.

Extensive preliminary tests and research were necessary before construction could be started. Because of the great speed and the extraordinary heat stress, special heat-resisting materials had to be found. The development, which cost millions, was almost completed at the end of the war. The then existing models were destroyed but the plant in Breslau where Miethe worked fell into the hands of the Russians who took all the material and the experts to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is being successfully continued.

Schriever escaped from Prague in time; Habermohl, however, is probably in the Soviet Union, as nothing is known of his fate. The former designer Miethe is in the United States and, as far as is known, is building "flying saucers" for the United States and Canada at the A.V. Roe works. Years ago, the U.S. Air Force received orders not to fire at "flying saucers". This is an indication of the existence of American "flying saucers" which must not be endangered. The flying shapes so far observed are stated to have diameters of 16, 42, 45 and 75 m respectively and to reach speeds of up to 7,000 km/h.

Again - quite a bit of detail, for a man stuck in a patents office.

But understandable in light of the fact that it basically plagiarized the Georg Klein accounts published three years earlier (probably accounting for Lusar's omitting any mention of Klein in his version).

So here was a plagiarism of an account three years earlier by Klein, which itself was just a combination of the previously published accounts of Schriever, Miethe and Belluzzo (whom Lusar called 'Bellonzo'), with the new added twists that not only had Schriever and Habermohl had not only designed a flying saucer but had been its first pilots on its first flight -- an intriguingly extraordinary claim on its face.

And such is how legends are sometimes born, or as phrased in the Reuters' review... 'revealed authoritatively'.

With that said, it was in Lusar's book that the legend of the mysterious Dr. Miethe emerged once again, this time "building 'flying saucers' for the United States and Canada at the A.V. Roe works".

Which, if Dr. Miethe was who he says he was and did what he says he did, might make sense after all -- if one had never heard of John Frost.

Four years before Lusar's book, a new chapter in German flying disc lore had begun with an article in the Toronto Star on February 11, 1953.

The article reported leaked information that a 'flying saucer' was under development at the A.V. Roe (Avro) facility in Malton, Canada. The headline read 'Report Malton Flying Saucer to do 1500 MPH, Takes Off Straight Up'. From the February 12, 1953 San Mateo, California Times...

TORONTO -- The Toronto Star said today a 1500-mile-an-hour "flying saucer" may be built in Canada.

The copyright story gives these reported details:

The proposed craft would be able to take off vertically, fly horizontally at 1500 miles an hour and use the gyroscopic effect of a revolving power plant to acquire stability. It would be about 40 feet in diameter.

A wooden model is behind tarpaulin screens at an experimental hangar at nearby Malton.

Blueprints of the craft have been studied by the British air ministry. British sources say the saucer would have a gas turbine engine of unconventional design revolving several times a minute around the pilot, who would sit in a plastic bubble. The saucer's rim would remain stationary. A Canadian government scientist says it would take two years to put such a craft into the air.

The paper commented:

"Reports have bean so persistent and apparently authentic concerning the Canadian craft that western scientists consider the possibility that Soviet Russia has carried similar developments to a more advanced stage."

The report spread quickly, but the details remained murky. On February 16th, Canada's Minister for Defense Production told the House of Commons that work only consisted of a 'mock-up model'. A little later, the president of Avro would write an entry in the in-house company bulletin, but said only that the company was working on a project "so revolutionary that it would make all other forms of supersonic aircraft obsolete".

What the press didn't know though, was that the report was purposely planted to generate political support for funding of the project -- and that research was still very much in the preliminary stages.

The saga leading to all this had started six years earlier when John Carver Meadows Frost -- known to his friends and co-workers simply as "Jack" -- had arrived from his native England to the A.V. Roe plant in Canada. Just 32-years old, he already had a storied career behind him. As a "public school" boy straight out of the mold of Goodbye, Mr. Chips he had graduated from the Oxford-based St. Edwards School with honours in mathematics, chemistry and physics. But it was said to be his ranking first in his class at Latin which meant the most to him personally. For in Mr. Chips fashion it had been his Latin professor who had taken him up in his first airplane flight and inspired his love for aviation.

Frost's aviation engineering career had seen him rise rapidly through the ranks, ultimately to become head of the project team in England for the next-generation English fighter jet. It was here that Frost also became a pioneer in swept-wing plane design, as well as designs for trans-sonic flight.

He had arrived at A.V. Roe in Canada in 1947 to join an already-established design team working on a new jet fighter. Unfortunately for Frost, the design was already well underway and conflicts with other key members erupted almost immediately, with Frost being dismayed at the reliance on "brute force" over elegant design. The conflict would continue through failed test after failed test, with several pilot deaths along the way. Finally, much to Frost's relief, he was pulled away to form his own "special projects" group at Avro, where his first focus was vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) designs for aircraft.

Leading Frost to his own designs for a "flying saucer".

Before even becoming head of Avro's Special Projects Group, Frost had been toying around -- literally -- with a ring-shaped engine design. In the latter part of 1951, he had gone personally to a shop foreman to have him produce a 3-1/2 inch by 2-inch metal disc with scoops at the side and a ball bearing and shaft assembly in the middle. Later Frost was spotted with an air hose and clipboard, taking notes on the dynamics of the thing as it spun on its shaft (which was clamped to a vice). By early February, 1952 he had submitted a memo to upper management, titled Description and Thoughts on the Turbo Disc.

The engine design Frost envisioned was essentially was that of two rotating rings, the inner spinning clockwise and the outer counter-clockwise. Frost submitted the design to the engineering department of McGill University, and by April, along with design partner T.D. Earl, expanded his earlier work with a paper titled Proposal for a Gas Turbine Propelled Aircraft of Circular Planform. In the paper, the proposed craft was said to eliminate "many of the features of a more conventional aeroplane" resulting in "economical manufacture and maintenance". It was also estimated it would have greater thrust-to-weight ratios so that "its performance must surpass that of any known type of aeroplane". And in the designers' own words...

Fundamentally, the design is unorthodox in two respects:

a) It is proposed to control the aeroplane by altering the direction of thrust forces.
b) It is proposed to stabilize the aeroplane by means of a powerful gyroscope -- the large diameter engine rotor.

The project was given a go-ahead and preliminary small budget by Avro, under the code name "Project Y". The course of events after that involved many design changes, so that the "circular planform" became more like a spade, though ring configuration of the engine rotor remained as a gyro-stabilizer.

At the beginning of 1953 the mock-up was wind-tunnel tested in England. By that time McGill University's analysis had come back, stating "...performance at high flight speeds is good".

The only trouble was, the Canadian Research Board had provided $379,000 for the initial research, and the funds were dwindling fast. Hence, the sudden burst of publicity, based on "leaks", starting with the above-mentioned article in the Toronto Star. The campaign would continue with a well-publicized visit by British General Bernard Montgomery, who publicly waxed ecstatic afterwards. By September major players in U.S. defense research, including Lt. General Donald L. Putt -- in charge of such for the United States Air Force -- came to Avro for a major presentation.

The behind the scenes maneuvering which had resulted in the visit is not known, nor are the subsequent events in detail, but by the end of 1954 Frost's funding was coming from the Americans, and Project Y had evolved into "Project Y2", which would meet the unique needs of the U.S. Air Force, as stated in a February, 1955 military report for "a supersonic research aircraft having a circular planform" which would have "both vertical takeoff and military performance capabilities". In that same report was included the reasoning around which Project Y2 was formed...

There is a USAF requirement to develop means of operation from dispersed bases. This requirement stems from the growing and possibly catastrophic vulnerability of conventional air bases. The major feature of conventional air bases is the runway, which has grown wider, thicker, and longer as aircraft have become heavier and faster. The operational necessity of runways leads to concentrations of aircraft which have become critical targets. The logical approach to dispersed base operation would then appear to be toward reducing the length of runways or to their total elimination... Attempts to eliminate runways completely have resulted in helicopters, convertiplanes and what is known as VTOL aircraft.

There are two general types of VTOL aircraft - "tail-sitters" and "flat-risers". A flat-riser takes off in the vertical direction in a normal horizontal flight attitude, while the tail-sitter takes off vertically from a position which is 90 degrees to a normal level horizontal flight attitude... A possible solution to this problem has been proposed by A.V. Roe, Canada, Limited, in the form of their Project Y2 (Secret).

Then, describing the work currently underway...

Two versions of small research VTOL aircraft have been designed by the contractor, which, by company designation, are Project Y (Secret), a "tail-sitter", and Project Y2 (Secret), a "flat-riser". Early in the investigation, Project Y (Secret) was rejected by the contractor in favor of the flat-riser. Project Y2 (Secret) design proposal incorporates a number of advance improvements brought about by the utilization of several radical ideas in fundamental areas which, as yet, have not been thoroughly investigated. The original proposal was essentially for the construction of a very large radial-flow gas turbine engine which, when covered, will form a flying wing with circular planform, similar in appearance to a very large discus. The engine is designed to fly "edge-on" to the wind instead of axially as is the present practice in conventional aircraft design.

And then, as far as John Frost must have been concerned, came the rub...

An alternate version for a multi-engine aircraft... would avoid concurrent development of the airframe and engine while providing the other essential characteristics of the vehicle.

Frost's original dual-ring pancake engine design was out. Project Y2 -- now known by the U.S. military as Project Silverbug -- was veering back towards the conventional.

The path thereafter was long and twisted before the project was ultimately cancelled in March, 1960. Along the way it would include offshoots including an all-circular flying wing with a seemingly conventional fuselage as well as a flying jeep offshoot for the U.S. Army. Near its end the result was the "Avrocar", a proof of concept vehicle which exhibited stability problems. By the end of the project Avro was no longer a going concern, and John Frost moved on to New Zealand.

Which brings us back to the mysterious Dr. Miethe, whom Lusar claimed was "building 'flying saucers' for the United States and Canada at the A.V. Roe works".

Certainly there is nothing on record concerning Miethe -- or any of the self-proclaimed "flying saucer" designers. However, the legend gained new currency with the story of a Canadian researcher, as told by author Bill Zuk in his book Avrocar -- The Canadian Flying Saucer...

Recently, while doing research at Canada's National Archives, historian Larry Koerner says he "came across a file containing a document which provided an account of a meeting that may shed some further light on the development of the Avrocar. The meeting, which took place in the then West Germany during 1953, at a Canadian government installation, was attended by a German aviation engineer along with officers of the RCAF, RAF, British Intelligence Services and John Frost, an Avro Canada executive. The purpose of the meeting was to give Mr. Frost, who was already working on the design of a ground-cushioned vehicle, the opportunity to cross-examine the German engineer.

"This man claimed to have been working on a similar type of aircraft for the German Government between 1944 and 1945 at a site near Prague, in what is now the Czech Republic. Moreover, the German asserted that not only had such a saucer-like vehicle been built, but it had also been flight tested. However, he also said that, at the end of the war, both plans and the aircraft itself had been destroyed. Unfortunately the file in question provided no further indication as to how useful this information was to either Avro Canada or the British and Canadian governments."

And in his book The Hunt for Zero Point, Nick Cook -- the aforementioned aviation editor for Jane's Defence Weekly -- tells of a personal interview with the son of John Frost...

I asked Tony Frost instead how he thought his father had come by his radical ideas.

He told me, almost in passing, that a file recently uncovered in Canada's National Archives had shown that his father had made a journey to West Germany in 1953. There, at a Canadian government installation in the company of British and Canadian intelligence officials, Frost met with a German aviation engineer who claimed to have worked on a vehicle similar to the disc-shaped aircraft on the drawing boards at Avro. The German said that the project had been under way at a site near Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1944—45, and that the saucer had not only been built, but flight-tested. He told Frost that both the plans and the craft itself had been destroyed in the closing weeks of the war.

How the information was used by Frost was never made clear. Like the Avro supersonic disc program, he never spoke about it -- to his family or anyone.

Author Bill Zuk also quotes R.N. "Ron" Williams, who worked at Avro, from a 1976 newspaper interview...

Frost had given considerable thought to the many reports, both old and new, of unidentified flying objects in the sky, more commonly called flying saucers...

What he was looking for was something that couldn't be explained by optical illusion, shadows on clouds, an over-active imagination, a con artist, or whatever...

Frost had an instinctive feeling that perhaps someone somewhere had developed what came to be known as a flying saucer. Out of two hundred or more sightings he investigated, he found only two that could not be explained away by any of the above reasons. Both were in Europe -- in the area of Germany. He concluded, rightly or wrongly, that there was a good chance the Germans with the advanced aeronautical technology they displayed during the war -- rockets, buzz-bombs, etc. -- which was far ahead of the British and the Americans, that perhaps the Germans had built and were experimenting with a saucer-like vehicle.

The problem with the accounts above are several.

Although the "historian Larry Koerner" is cited for the purported 1953 meeting, the alleged document is neither named nor reproduced for examination. Most tellingly the German "engineer" goes unnamed, and no biographical information is provided (in fact no alleged participant except for Frost is named), nor is any date that can be matched with Frost's movements, other than that it allegedly took place in 1953. Nothing is quoted, everything is paraphrased, and the only "details" are suspiciously reminiscent of the several accounts published decades earlier.

But surely at any such meeting there would no doubt have been many questions -- how was stability achieved in the German "flying saucer", what was the thrust to weight ratio, what was used for directional thrust, what was the engine configuration, what control systems were needed, and on and on and on. Yet the alleged document is portrayed as if it were a line item in the minutes of the meeting... "Met German engineer about flying saucer that flew in Prague in 1945. Says plans were destroyed."

The Ron Williams account of Frost is equally problematic in its assertion that there were "two hundred or more sightings he investigated". Such investigation would have required a considerable amount of personal time and effort on Frost's part. And if in that investigation Frost had indeed found "only two that could not be explained away... in the area of Germany", then he was either a supreme investigator -- there are no commonly known reports from Germany pre-1953 that are particularly remarkable -- or he was particularly careless, having ignored several world-famous pilot encounters which had occurred by that time, for instance, as well as the accounts of guided missile experts and astronomers who had made their own experiences public in national magazines. In fact, if his interest was as described, it is remarkable that there is not a trail of correspondence to those well-known others in the aviation and missile industries who had their own experiences as part of his "investigation".

But as even Nick Cook admits, Frost himself "never spoke about it -- to his family or anyone". And in fact Frost's initial conceptual work on his 'saucer', as well as his memos - Description and Thoughts on the Turbo Disc and Proposal for a Gas Turbine Propelled Aircraft of Circular Planform were completed months before the person calling himself Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe gave his first public interview to France Soir. Frost's work also predated by a year and a half the alleged meeting with the unnamed "engineer" in West Germany.

And thus such tales of Frost -- like the tale of the Nazi saucer itself -- amount to nothing more than unsubstantiated claims to be added to the ever-growing list, in this case made after Frost himself, having died in 1979, could make no reply.In commenting on Ron Williams account of Frost's purported investigation of flying saucer reports -- i.e., "there are no commonly known reports from Germany pre-1953 that are particularly remarkable" -- it is assumed that Frost's interest would have been in sightings featuring the aerodynamic characteristics of the reported "saucers" from witnesses such as pilots and engineers. There is, however, one remarkable report from Germany in that period which made the wire services in July, 1952...

Flying Disc, Crew, Seen By Red Refugees

BERLIN -- Western intelligence officials are investigating the claim of a Russian zone political refugee, the former mayor of an East German town in Thuringia, to have seen a flying saucer and two members of its crew on the ground at close range in a forest in the Russian zone, three miles from the border of the U.S. zone.

The mayor, Oskar Linke, who was forced to flee from Eastern Germany to escape Communist persecution, Wednesday sat in his emergency home in Berlin's British sector and quietly described his experience. He has been "screened" by intelligence officials.

Linke said: "It was an uncanny experience. I was returning home in the evening by motorcycle with my 11-year-old daughter in the side car when we glimpsed something shimmering white through the surrounding trees.

"We were in the neighborhood of Meiningen, a town in Thuringia. We crept through the undergowths, and to our amazement, saw a huge oval disk about 25 feet across lying on the ground in a clearing.

"It looked like a huge phosphorescent warming pan without a handle. In the center was a square contraption, a sort of upper works which rose about the 'saucer' like a top hat, and was slightly darker in color than the rest of the aluminum-like disk.

"Then, to our astonishment, we saw two figures who appeared to be wearing metallic overalls, approach the object.

"My daughter let out a scream when she saw them and the figures hastily entered it through a porthole on the top of the square upper works in the center.

"It was then that we noticed also that the disk had two rows of circular portholes around its edge, about the size of ship's portholes.

"As we looked the square upper works began to retract and simultaneously the object started to rise slowly off the ground.

"We both noticed that a similar square-shaped based was emerging out of the bottom of the disk and apparently forcing it off the ground.

"Then the object began to rise slowly into the air. It rose to about a hundred feet, hovered for a moment, and then spun away out of sight.

"There was hardly any sound as it rose, but the sides of the 'warming pan' glowed dark red and we felt a swish of air as it left the ground."

After seeing the "saucer," Linke wrote a description of it in the form of an eight-page eye-witness report, with diagrams drawn from memory. He hid the report for fear that the East German secret police would find it and arrest him as a spy.

"This has been the first chance I have had to mention the matter to anyone," he said.

"I was too frightened before."

His 11-year-old daughter confirmed the story in detail: I was so terrified I did not know what to do," she said. "Father told me I was not to mention it to anyone as long as we were in the Soviet zone as it would have meant our arrest."

Western intelligence officials refused to comment on the report until they had made further investigations.

Linke was a senior official of the East German Farmers' Association and was returning to his home from a meeting of the association when he made his flying saucer discovery.

Nick Cook suggests that the reported 1953 meeting of Frost with the "German engineer" may have been with Viktor Schauberger, but provides no source or reference for such a suggestion even though he had personally reviewed Schauberger's papers and further stated that "it was clear that Viktor Schauberger had documented every turn of his career in meticulous detail".

Nick Cook's The Hunt for Zero Point is actually a very entertaining read when approached with the proper dose of discernment, giving some fascinating history on "black budget" programs in aviation as well as historical background on key individuals such as T. Townsend Brown. Cook's final suggestion in his research is not only was "anti-gravity" accomplished by the Germans, but that the same work also involved plans for a "time machine"

Any attempt to document the twists and turns that are the legend of the Nazi saucer must leave many anciliary paths unmentioned. This single entry on German flying discs comprises 10,000 words in and of itself... but the diverging narratives could fill several volumes.

But before closing, some discussion is necessary of the work of Nick Cook, the aforementioned journalist and Aviation Editor at Jane's Defence Weekly, and author of The Hunt for Zero Point: Inside the Classified World of Anti-Gravity Technology. For it is he who brought to prominence a new player into the pantheon of German "saucer" designers.

Intrigued by an old clipping left on his desk -- promising coming anti-gravity vehicles in the 1950s -- Cook became curious and then obsessive about the possibility that the technology indeed was being developed but had been subsumed into the murky world of "black budget" operations. He traveled the world in search of answers, a journey which also drew him into the legend of the Nazi saucer...

Had the Germans developed a totally new form of propulsion, blended it with a radically different kind of air vehicle, and deployed it in the form of some new and secret weapon system in the latter stages of the war?

It was an astonishing leap on Cook's part, for none of the self-proclaimed personages involved -- not Belluzzo, nor Schriever, nor Miethe, nor Klein, nor Lusar -- had so much as whispered the merest hint that "anti-gravity" had been achieved, let alone involved in their "saucers". Belluzzo had called it "simply rational application of recent technique". Schriever's diagram indicated rotating "paddles" acting much like helicopter blades, powered by three engines.


   Bottom view drawing of Schriever Flugkreisel
with 5 kerosene-burning engines
(3 on the disc rotor, 2 on the underbody)

Miethe had said his design was for a "supersonic helicopter" that from a distance "could, without magnifying glasses, more or less resemble the saucer of a set of table ware" and that it operated "by means of a compressed gas based on helium.

Klein made no mention whatsoever of the means of propulsion, but said the "saucers" had been "in the planning stage in German aircraft factories as early as 1941", implying nothing unconventional. Lusar said one of the "saucers" was based on "adjustable wing-discs which could be brought into appropriate position for the take-off or horizontal flight respectively", while the other was "a discus-shaped plate of a diameter of 42m in which adjustable jets were inserted".

But unfortunately for Cook, his starting point had been not the original stories but through the pseudonymous "Lawrence Cross" -- a former reporter at Jane's who had moved on to work in Australia. From Cross he had received a report dealing with what Cross called "the Legend", apparently consisting of the Lusar account with many subsequent embellishments.

Equally unfortunate, Cook proves himself to be far more interested in finding proof of his developing belief than in an objective approach to the subject, to the point of making the most tenuous of connections. Just one example -- in reading a classified U.S. memo on German technology, he takes the memo's conclusion that 'All information available... has been thoroughly investigated and this subject may be closed with negative result' as being an order designed to stop any further investigation which might reveal the truth.

There are dozens of like inferences and tenuously-supported conclusions in his search, and in the end he pretty much parrots the legend as told so far -- but this time with the anti-gravity twist.

But it is from Nick Cook that we learn of a man named Viktor Schauberger, the last of the self-proclaimed flying disc designers covered herein (though another, named Andreas Epp, would also emerge in the 1990s).

Late 1943

The terror of the Third Reich still reigns in Europe.

But the 6th Army has capitulated in Stalingrad, the Africa Corp has been smashed. And in the West, the fear of an invasion is growing.

Hitler still believes in Final Victory and in bizarre miracle weapons. With bomb carrying, invisible to Radar, Flugkreiseln [flying discs], he wants to reconquer the skies above Europe. 

In a Skoda factory in Prague, Nazi designers are assembling a prototype. The young engineer Andreas Epp had sent the Air Forces Generals a letter with design drawings. But they won’t let him participate.

In his memoirs, Epp reports:  "I heard they were working in Prague at my flying disks. I was furious, because they had swiped my idea".

Epp travels to Prague and sneaks into the secret development area: "There I saw a remarkable object directly above me. It had no wings."

How did the Nazi-UFOs fly?

The English flight historian Henry Stevens: "There were 15 prototypes produced under orders from the SS. They had propellers below and jet drives."


The first tests with the UFOs were successful. Hitler travels to his ally Mussolini. Proudly he presents the Duce with his new miracle weapon. Luigi Romersa, at that time Mussolini’s armament adviser, says:  "It was extraordinary. The UFO was round, with a cockpit in the middle and a Plexiglas cupola. On all sides were jet drives".

But the UFOs never appear over the battle fields of the war. Construction mistakes, lack of materiel and the advancing allies prevent their introduction. In the spring of 1945, the designers destroy the Skoda factory in Prague, their sketches and the prototypes , shortly before the Red Army invades. Days later Germany capitulates

Hitler dream - the nightmare of Europe, is over.

Yet even today the rumors persist, the German designer Epp has constructed his UFO, developed at Skoda, at the behest of the CIA after the war.

The tale of Viktor Schauberger may be as much comprised of myth as the tale of the Nazi saucer itself.

Or it may not.

For when it comes to Schauberger, there are biographies and books and references in news articles, but they are all seemingly intertwined and feed off one another, and there are no easily-located primary contemporary references to be found (at least not in English).

The tale of Viktor Schauberger then, as it exists, goes something like this...

Born in 1885 in Austria, Viktor Schauberger was an enigmatic figure. Commonly described as a 'forester', he was also a visionary who saw air and water as 'energizing media', and found the vortices and spirals which exist throughout nature as the key to new methods for energy generation and propulsion systems.

Schauberger's first invention based on his theories was a 1922 design for a radical new log flume, widely incorporated in Austria and Bavaria. Where flumes were normally built for the shortest distance between two locations, his followed the natural paths of valleys and rivers. And by building them so that water twisted in a spiral as it carried the timber, Schauberger was able to transport immense weight over long distances.

In 1929 he filed patents for water-driven turbines, later developing the innovative 'trout turbine' based on his observations of a trout's behavior in a fast flowing stream.

In 1933, he published what might be considered one of the first environmental treatises, a book titled 'Our Senseless Toil - The Cause of the World Crisis'. In the book he argued that by working against nature -- in the building of dams, for instance -- man was creating more problems than he was solving. Schauberger argued for working with the natural flows of nature as a far more productive course.

Then, in 1940, he enters the legend of the German flying discs, as told by Nick Cook...

Schauberger, whose story was contained in notes on the Legend sent to me by Lawrence Cross, was an Austrian who had supposedly invented a totally new form of propulsion based upon a principle called "implosion." No one I spoke to seemed entirely sure what implosion meant, but according to the stories that had grown up around this man, the implosion process was at the heart of a radical turbine that Schauberger had installed in a sub-scale flying disc sometime during the war. A test of this small flying vehicle, with its echoes of the Schriever Flying Top, had supposedly taken place and the results were said to have been highly impressive. In one account of the test, the craft had apparently risen toward the ceiling of the test facility "trailing a glow of ionization." This immediately elevated the report above the many others I had come across, for it signaled that, whatever was occurring within the implosion process, it had precious little to do with jet propulsion. If true, it could only have been an antigravity effect.

If true.

Though claiming to be initially skeptical, Cook finally arranged to meet Schauberger's grandson, Jörg, who runs an institute devoted to Schauberger's work. Before arriving, Cook relates...

I took a break at a rest stop, got out the laptop and pulled up Cross' notes on the Legend. The relevant portion, the part devoted to Viktor Schauberger, boiled down to the following precis:

Late in the war, despite being close to pensionable age, Schauberger was called up for active duty in the German Army. Soon afterward, he received orders to report to an SS institution in Vienna. From there, he was taken to the nearby concentration camp of Mauthausen, informed by the camp commandant that his inventions had received the blessing of Reichsführer Himmler himself, and ordered to handpick a group of engineers from among the prisoners. This would be the "team" that would help him complete his work on an energy device of radical design that Schauberger had begun working on before the war. If he did not comply with this order, the commandant informed him, he would be hanged and reprisals instituted against his family. Schauberger did as he was told.

By 1944, serious work had begun on a Schauberger machine that appeared to have a dual purpose: first as an energy generator and second as a power plant for an aerospace vehicle of saucer-like appearance. Descriptions of the workings of this generator, sometimes referred to as a "trout turbine," were always woefully inadequate. One such relayed the apparent fact that "if water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as 'colloidal,' a buildup of energy results, which, with immense power, can cause levitation."

Details of the chronology were hazy, Cross explained, but Schauberger's team had apparently claimed success a few days before Germany surrendered. One of the scientists who'd worked with Schauberger reportedly said that at the first attempt to run the machine "the flying saucer rose unexpectedly to the ceiling and then was wrecked. The apparatus functioned at the first attempt... and rose upward trailing a blue-green and then a silver-colored glow."

The craft in question, Cross said, had a diameter of 1.5 meters, weighed 135 kilograms and was started by a small electric motor with takeoff energy supplied by the so-called trout turbine.

The next part, Cross' text alerted me, was really weird. "A few days later an American group reportedly appeared, who seemed to understand what was happening and seized everything. [His emphasis, not mine].

Schauberger was kept under "protective U.S. custody" for six months to a year, Cross maintained, and some of his work was reportedly branded by the Americans as "atomic energy research." Cross ended up saying he had no idea what happened to Schauberger after this period.

According to Cook, Schauberger's grandson allowed him to go through Schauberger's papers. Cook states...

At this, he gave an almost imperceptible nod and indicated we should head upstairs. It was getting late and there was a lot of material we needed to get through in the short space of time I was in Bad Ischl.

Cook then relates, amongst other biographical details...

In 1934, a year after Hitler came to power, Schauberger was summoned to the German capital to explain to his Führer and fellow countryman how processes of natural motion and temperature and the vital relationship between soil, water and vegetation combined to create a sustainable and viable society; a society, in effect, that was at ease with itself.

At the meeting was Max Planck, the great German physicist and pioneer of quantum theory, who when asked by Hitler at the end of Schauberger's talk what he thought of his theories replied testily, "Science has nothing to do with Nature" and withdrew from the discussion.

The placement of this story certainly implies that it came from Schauberger's papers or from his grandson, but Cook gives no direct attribution for these "facts", which sound just as likely to have come from Cross' report on "the Legend". For it is not until after this that Cook states...

As Jörg Schauberger and I settled into the archive, which was crammed full with the old man's files and papers, it was clear that Viktor Schauberger had documented every turn of his career in meticulous detail.

Through his letters, duplicates of which he always placed on file, it was possible to paint an intricate profile of the man and his inventions. 

So had Schauberger truly met with Hitler and Planck? Cook implies certain knowledge of such, but gives no quote or supporting material for the assertion.

The tale Cook tells from there is long and complicated -- and fascinating -- covering dozens of pages, and at first includes sourcing its claims to Schauberger's papers directly. But then Cook veers back and forth so that what came directly from Schauberger's papers and what came from other "sources" -- or even surmises -- becomes progressively indistinguishable.

Cook's final conclusion though, can be summed up by this passage...

The diary had made it clear that Viktor Schauberger had built a machine that had flown earlier in the war at Kertl (and almost certainly during Schauberger's secret period of research in Czechoslovakia). It was also quite clear that the device's modus operandi was wholly unconventional -- that is to say, the method by which it generated lift was insufficiently explained by current scientific knowledge.

The diary had given me something I could believe in at long last.

Via Schauberger, the Nazis had been deeply involved -- no question -- in what can only be described as flying saucer technology. And from this flowed the corollary that other parts of the Legend were perhaps also based on fact.

Viktor Schauberger died in 1958. Nick Cook lives on, now as an 'aerospace' consultant to Jane's Defence Weekly, and is involved in various activities regarding anti-gravity propulsion and zero-point energy, as well as participating in high-end documentaries on the UFO phenomenon.

Unfortunately, breathless reporting of German work on "saucers" has also infected some mainstream publications which should know better. Such reports generally portray the CIA document which reprints the May, 1953 I Vrdayni article on Georg Klein as if it were a report by the CIA itself. Such errors are usually mirrored when dealing with the storied career of the Horten brothers, who were extensively investigated for any connection to the "flying saucer" phenomena by Air Force investigators in 1947 and 1950, resulting in the conclusion in both instances that the Horten brothers were not involved through their past or present activities.

And thus ends the tale of the Nazi Saucer... so far.

Disinformation campaigns go back at least as far as World War II. The techniques used over the last 70 years only grow ever more sophisticated. Official-looking documents can be synthetically aged and slipped into archive files to be 'newly discovered'. News reports can be planted across the world. People can be variously motivated into becoming 'sources'. Even respected journalists may play a part in the plan.

Did the German's develop flying discs in World War II? The first public claim didn't come until 5 years after the war, and the legend built from there. But by that time the 'flying saucer' phenomenon was already well underway, and so the idea of flying discs was not radical. Could the legend of the Nazi saucer in itself be the beginnings of a disinformation campaign, meant to force the conclusion that UFOs were man-made, and thus distract attention from a new unknown in the skies?

And since then, the legend has grown into a cottage industry including books containing massive amounts of details and diagrams, along with pictures, dates and alleged personages. Sometimes it encompasses secret Nazi UFO bases in the Antarctic, and in South America, and even on the moon. Could this extreme version be part of a disinformation campaign to discredit the earlier legitimate reports on German flying discs?

And if UFOs after the war were extensions of previous German developments, based on technology captured by the U.S., why was so much of the government's time devoted to figuring out what they were? This too, is well documented. Could it be those efforts were themselves elements of a disinformation campaign to steer us away from identifying the source of those things flying in the sky?

The truth may be out there, yes. But that doesn't mean it will ever truly be known.


The Project Silverbug report can be found at CUFON.

A discussion of some of the principles behind Frost's design -- particularly the Coanda effect -- can be found in a charmingly illustrated Mechanix Illustrated piece titled How The Flying Saucer Works (at Scribd). 

When Adolf Hitler (a Thule member along with Göring, Himmler, and various other top Nazi officials) became chancellor of Germany in 1933 the eleven year occult metaphysical science of Thule-Vril became strengthened by official state backing for the continued disc development programs starting with an RFZ (RundFlugZeug), or "Round Aircraft" series of discs that utilized levitators developed by W.O. Schumann of the Technical University of Munich who worked on the mysterious JFM from 1922-24.

1937 saw the first RFZ discs built, RFZ units 1-3. The first RFZ series utilized the Schumann levitators, but often with disastrous results.

The very first disc, RFZ-1 rose very briefly only to 60 meters before losing control. Pilot Lothar Waiz, testing the machine at Arado-Brandenburg, quickly bailed from the spinning disc whose Ar 196 controls and tail unit failed to function causing the machine to spin out of control and crash into the ground. Not to be discouraged the RFZ-2 was built the same year and achieved a measure of success. This was a small armed disc with two MG that was used in 1940 for recon over the British Isles and in the South Atlantic with a rendezvous with the German raider Atlantis in 1942.

The RFZ 3,4, and 6 were all prototypes that grew larger and more powerful in each subsequent model. They were built from 1934-1940. The RFZ-5 was renamed Haunebu in 1939 with the RFZ-7 becoming the Vril-1 Jäger in 1941. These highly advanced disc aircraft were overseen by Himmler's SS - specifically, the SS Technical Branch Unit E-IV (Entwicklungsstelle 4) which was created to explore various alternative energies. This unit was tasked with developing both the Haunebu and Vril disc designs that utilized the world's first electro-magnetic-gravitic drive systems: the Vril and Thule Triebwerks.

These drives relied on Hans Coler's free energy Konverter coupled to a Van De Graaf band generator and Marconi vortex dynamo (a huge spherical tank of mercury) to create powerful rotating electromagnetic fields that affected gravity. Many have often inquired "why" then when war started in 1939 did Germany not use these advanced and unique machines in air combat? The simple truth lies in the fact that these machines, despite their superior overall performance to conventional piston-engined aircraft and early jets, could not be realistically adapted to any useful military role other than the most basic transport and recon work.

The strong electromagnetic engines were difficult to control and required a complex celestial navigation system to fly. While maximum speed and range were incredible for the time, the flight characteristics of the discs could not hope to imitate high-performance fighters like the Me Bf 109 or Fw 190. There was very little room for either offensive or defensive armament in these designs except for a few experimental light MG and MK cannons that proved impractical in flight and a rather large experimental Donar (Thunder) Kraftstrahlkanone (Strong Jet Cannon).

These guns tended to destabilize the discs badly and were eventually removed or replaced with lighter automated guns. The disc bodies themselves were not capable of carrying any ordnance at all internally or externally (no bombs, rockets, or missiles) and could make only turns of 22.5, 45, and 90 degrees.

Nevertheless, the SS pursued an aggressive policy of theft, forced cooperation, and strong internal development of these types of machines due to the increasing Allied bombing offensive that made conventional aircraft take-offs and landings highly dangerous. VTOL was seen as the logical solution to this problem. If the SS could develop a production machine that in the future could be armed (with cannon, missiles, or even an electrostatic weapon) then Germany might be able to turn the air war.

To shorten the time of finding VTOL solutions, the SS robbed both Germany's patent office and every patent office in occupied Europe.

Those with aeronautical skill enough to contribute to the SS effort were either arrested or coerced into participating in the programs- among them Viktor Schauberger of Austria and Henri Coanda of Rumania. The SS also used its large slave labor force to assist in construction of large underground facilities for these discs and often for production of components to these machines.

Though the SS requested additional slave laborers from Armaments Minister Albert Speer, Speer himself was not told what war projects the laborers would be used for; indeed, Speer was deliberately kept out of the entire SS disc development programs for security reasons and the fact that the SS was a state-within-a-state with its own production facilities, war material, scientists and technicians, slave workforce, and the knowledge of secret Third Reich military bases outside Germany where the discs were both tested and stored.

Among those held, Viktor Schauberger became the leader of most interest due to his highly unconventional use of liquid vortex technology which was perfected while he was in custody at Mauthausen. Originally designed for an odd bio-submarine, the strange Repulsin discoid motors were to be adapted to aircraft.

Heinkel was the first to receive the early results of the discoid motor tests but refused to act on it in the same way the Luftwaffe refused to act on Heinkel's flight of its first jet aircraft, the He 178, three days before the start of WW2.


A year after the Repulsin Model A motor was being studied one of Heinkel's own engineers named Rudolf Schriever proposed his own "Flugkreisel" (Flying Gyro) that utilized conventional jet engines instead of the Repulsin discoid motor. His design was taken from him by the SS and handed over to a team of scientists for further study and construction of a large flying prototype, The team consisted of Dr. Richard Miethe, Klaus Habermohl, and Dr.Giuseppe Belluzzo who had come up with his own design for a jet powered round flying bomb- the Turboproietti.

Meanwhile, BMW (who was to provide the turbojets for Heinkel's jets) started work on a design very similar to Schriever's Flugkreisel but utilizing the company's own BMW 003 jet engines. These machines, called "Flügelrads" (Winged Wheels) were not true disc aircraft but jet autogyros that used a standard BMW 003 with a Strahlrohr (Jet pipe) deflector to power a multi-blade disc rotor.

These craft were built on a much smaller scale than Schriever's Flugkreisel so work proceeded from 1941-45 with construction of prototypes beginning in 1943. Instability, however, was never really solved in the earlier designs. Only one disc, a BMW Flügelrad II V-2 (or V-3) possibly achieved flight in April 1945. Schriever's own design began to take shape in 1942 and flew in 1943. It flew under jet power provided by three attached special kerosene-burning engines driving the disc rotor as well as two kerosene jets attached to the body for forward thrust and horizontal stability.

Flight characteristics were said to be good but then the SS decided to abruptly drop Schriever's jet-fan design in favor of Miethe's version that eliminated the large disc rotor blades driven by jet engines for Schauberger's liquid vortex engine, but on a larger scale. With Schauberger released back to Austria in 1944 by the SS, the Miethe prototype took to the air the same year over the Baltic. It's resemblance to the Repulsin Model B was unmistakable except for the addition of a bubble cockpit on top and water drainage (bleed) pipes to the rear of the craft instead of at the bottom.


Rudolf Schriever was the first would-be inventor of a Nazi "flying saucer" More than Belluzzo, he launched the concept of man-made UFOs by the Nazis. Like Beluzzo he died a few years after his claims and the mystery begin.


The picture is from the original Der Spiegel article, March 30, 1950.
Mainly devoted to the overall "flying saucers" mystery
(there was a huge on-going sighting wave all over Europe)


The German magazine Heim und Welt of April 2, 1950 (just a very few days after the original Schriever interview) portrayed the "flying saucer" take off, flight and landing by these three artworks on the left.   .

This is close-up of one of the Heim und Welt artworks, later reprinted also by the French magazine Tout Savoir (November 1954)



Another sketch of the
Schriever disc, from Das Ufer #18 of September 1952, introducing "flying saucers" as a possible secret German weapon developed during World War II.

Artist conception bottom view of the Schriever disc.
The original description published by the Der Spiegel article was quite detailed and was taken again by the press in 1952, just after the claims from the never-traced Richard Miethe.
Schriever died just one year later in a car accident, but his claims had already entered in the
Legend of Nazi UFOs.



Just following the 1950
Der Spiegel article, Arizona artist Jim Nichols produced this nice color artwork of Schriever's "Flugkreisel". Nichols produced many other artworks devoted
to Nazi UFOs, soon becoming
very popular.

A sketch of the Schriever "Flugkreisel" published by an Italian aviation magazine in the late '70s.

It is really amazing the quantity of drawings produced by illustrators aimed to portrait the Schriever "wonder machine". Most of them were quite faithful to the original 1950 description, while a few others were real wishful thinking.



In 1982, David Master's German Jet Genesis published by the prestigious Jane's military publisher introduced this sketch to illustrate the alleged Schriever's flying saucer.
It is very likely Masters based his information on Lusar's book about German secret weapons of WWII, which had a short yet provoking chapter about German "flying saucers".

Lusar's source was likely early '50s news clippings. Master's book illustrator got a quite free interpretation of the original Schriever description: this is a nearly classic "flying saucer", much closer to the descriptions of UFO witnesses than to the details published in 1950.  




An artist's rendering of the Schriever 1950 description of his own "flying saucer", here flying over the German mountains. These artworks look really fascinating when thinking of secret highly advanced aircrafts from the evil and somehow
mysterious Third Reich.

Rudolf Schriever's story (as well as the others coming from
later would-be inventors) and the concept behind it were really fascinating and well fitting the regular publications of news about more and more dreadful German secret weapons featured by the press since the end of WWII. Throughout the years the designers of many magazines tried to portray the mythical Schriever "Flugkreisel", most of them taking the original
Der Spiegel artwork as a reference.

The great interest for "What If" situations is another of the reasons of the "Evergreen" interest for such stories.


Recent developments involving the emergence of some new evidence for the existence of an advanced discplane designed by a joint Heinkel/BMW team of engineers headed by Dr. Richard Miethe at a variety of facilities in Prague, Czechoslovakia, from 1942/3 are most intriguing.

There were significant developments in Prague some of which were focused upon the Kbely (Gbell) airfield. The airfield is still in existence and nowadays a Czech aviation museum and archive are located on the spot where early German discs were tested. The chief archivist tells me that all the information on German projects were taken in 1945.

Some of the best evidence relating to the existence of this discplane, said by some to be the 'Versuchs 7' and 'Versuchs 8' (V7/V8) models emerged in an article featured in the German-language magazine Flugzeug ("Aircraft") dated 2/1989 which details a sighting by a witness in August/September 1943 at the Kbely airfield.

The disc completed a very simple take-off and landing exercise and the test was witnessed by several people. The disc was said to be housed in a nearby hangar.

In its February 1989 issue, the German magazine Flugzeug published the following report made by a German aviation official who, allegedly, been the protagonist of the astonishing sighting involving a "flying saucer" at the Prag-Gbell (formerly Praha-Kbely) aerodrome in 1943. The controversial report follows:

Place of Sighting:

C 14 Flight School at the Prag-Gbell aerodrome.

Date of Event:

August/September 1943, supposedly on a Sunday (I seem to recall there were no services on that day). The weather was good, dry and sunny.

Kind of Observation:

I was with my flight comrades on the air strip, more precisely, near the school buildings, some 2000 meters away from the arsenal (located to the extreme left).

The device was inside the hangar: a disk some 5-6 meters in diameter. Its body is relatively large at the center. Underneath, it has four tall, thin legs. Color: Aluminum. Height: Almost as tall as a man. Thickness: some 30 - 40 cm., with an rim of external rods, perhaps square orifices.

The upper part of the body (almost a third of the total height) was shrunken over the upper half of the disk. It was flat and rounded.

Along with my friends, I saw the device emerge from the hangar. It was then that we heard the roar of the engines, we saw the external side of the disk begin to rotate, and the vehicle began moving slowly and in a straight line toward the southern end of the field. It then rose almost 1 meter into the air. After moving around some 300 meters at that altitude, it stopped again. Its landing was rather rough.

We had to leave the area while some custodians pushed the vehicles toward the hangar. Later on, the "thing" took off again, managing to reach the end of the aerodrome this time

Afterwards, I made a note in my flight log of the members of the FFS C14 who were present at the moment: Gruppenfluglehrer (group flight instructor) Ofw. Michelsen; Fluglehrer Uffz. Kolh und Buhler; Flugschüler (flight students): Oger, Klassmann, Kleiner, Müller, Pfaffle, Schenk, Seifert, Seibert, Squarr, Stahn, Weinberger, Zöbele, Gefr, Hering, Koza, Sitzwohl, Voss, and Waluda.

It is important to note that the Russians captured the facility on or about the May 10, 1945. It is true that the allies did have a great deal of information about advanced German technologies and this is covered in my book UFO Revelation. Russians and Americans competed for the spoils of war in a very aggressive manner.

Of course many of the records have been buried and are out of our reach - even after 54 years......

There is little evidence of high performance in any witness statement relating to the discplane tests, excepting the information supplied by Flight Captain Rudolf Schriever in several German newspapers in 1950.

I suspect that talk of supersonic speeds for flying discs were an indication of those thought to be achievable by scientists after detailed research and development. I have no doubt that German discplanes flew and that they showed great potential but we can rule out high Mach flight or anything approaching it. Even the better postwar discplane sightings tended to indicate speeds of between 300-600 mph.

The German most closely associated postwar discplane development for the US Air Force (US Navy programmes developed earlier from the Chance-Vought XF5U-1 and related to jet-powered 'pancake' designs) was Dr. Richard Miethe who worked closely with John C Frost and H Moody for AV Roe in Canada. Miethe was the brains behind efforts to build the ultimate VTOL discplane based upon German work on the 'radial flow engine' noted in the previously "Top Secret" 'Project Silver Bug' or 'Project Y' papers (dated 1955) that led to the emergence of several variants including a disc interceptor (WS 606A/B) that was perhaps a forerunner to the more reliable YF-12.

Information on Miethe is scare although is work for the USAF has been acknowledged by former Secretary to the USAF Dr. Alexander Flax. Several FOIA appeals for information on Miethe have gone to appeal and have been unsuccessful. There is an ongoing attempt to bury the truth about the German input into US discplane Research and Development and this might in part relate to WW2 war crimes involving slave labourers who 'worked' for BMW. Information on 'Operation Paperclip' is also scarce...

Curiously the jet-powered XF5U-1 was said to have similar novel qualities as the multi-engine Schriever disc.

Nevertheless, the suggestion that a five-engine prototype disc could have overcome the serious problems of parasitic drag and flown at high speed is not a realistic one. Even if some sort of Schauberger system of 'levitation' is invoked then there are serious problems.

(On a separate note work into similar systems HAS taken place at the University of Houston and was conducted by the late Dr. Mikhael Goldshtik. His 'vortex thruster' system is said to be a development along similar lines - some 50 years after Schauberger! Therefore the early German work seems to have been based upon some real science and might be said to have been vindicated)

One thing is for sure; as times goes by, and though our efforts, the truth about man-made UFOs is slowly starting to emerge......

Tim Matthews, February 12, 1999


The 'Bellonzo-Schriever-Miethe Disc'

The phrase flying saucer was not coined until 1947. When Deputy Federal Marshal, Kenneth Arnold was flying his private airplane near Washington's Mount Rainer, he spotted a chain of nine peculiar looking aircraft.

In a memoir of the incident for the First International UFO Congress in 1977 Arnold revealed the flying saucer label arose because of a "great deal of misunderstanding" on the part of the reporter who wrote the story up for the United Press. Bill Bequette asked him how the objects flew and Arnold answered that, "Well, they flew erratic, like a saucer if you skip it across the water." The intent of the metaphor was to describe the motion of the objects not their shape. Arnold stated the objects "were not circular." A look at the drawing he did for his report to the Air Force shortly after the incident confirms the truth of that statement.

Now it makes no difference whether you believe in flying saucers or not. For flying saucers do exist and have been around for many years. There is too much documented proof, so try to have an open mind. Most of the major powers of the world know this, although they all deny that fact. It has been one of the most heavily guarded secrets of the world.

The technicians, scientists and engineers that were working on the various German flying discs were conscripted by several allied nations. France, England, Canada, Australia, Russia and the United States of America. France developed a flying saucer with the help of French aerospace designer Rene Couzinet. It had a diameter of twenty seven feet but not too much is known about it. However, pictures of it appeared in the Philadelphia Penn Inquirer on July 5, 1955. Chance Vought, Inc. of Stratford, Connecticut developed the XFSU-1 "Flying Flapjack," another saucer. This was headed by engineer Charles Zimmerman.

There were three separate German projects developing flying discs. The Schriever-Habermohl Project, with Rudolf Schriever, engineer and test pilot and Otto Habermohl, engineer. They were located at the Prag-Gbell in Czechoslovakia. Next was the Miethe-Belluzzo Project, with Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe, scientist,  and Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo [Bellonzo], Italian engineer. They had three facilities, Dresden, Germany, Breslau, Germany, and Letow Prag in Czechoslovakia. The third was the Peenemünde Project, on the Island of Usedom in the Baltic Sea. This is also the island where Dr scientist Wernher von Braun was developing the V-1 and V-2 rockets.

No one will say at this point of time, does this flying saucer still orbit around the Earth.

The place is the Prag-Gbell Airport, and the date is February 14, 1945. Four hangar technicians appeared out of a secret hangar, with a very strange looking aircraft, its retractable undercarriage legs terminating in inflatable rubber cushions. It was completely round, with a stable dome-shaped cabin directly in the center. This cockpit was surrounded by rotating adjustable vane blades forming a circle. The vanes were held together by a band around the outer edge of the disc like device. The pitch of the vanes could be adjusted so that during takeoff more lift was possible by increasing their angle. In level flight the angle would be decreased. There are twelve vane blades and each one had a small rocket motor. This is what caused the rotation of the vanes and the outer shell of the saucer. After the saucer had risen to a sufficient height, then the large horizontal rocket jet engines would be turned on.

The first non-official report on the development of this craft is to be found in Germany's Weapons and Secret Weapons of the Second World War and their Later Development,  J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, Munich, 1956.  The author of this detailed and technical work on German wartime weaponry was Major d.R. Rudolf Lusar, an engineer who worked in the German Reichs-Patent Office and had access to many original plans and documents. Lusar devoted a section of the chapter entitled "Special Devices," to Third Reich saucer designs.

Among other things, Lusar declared:

German scientists and researchers took the first steps toward such flying saucers during the last war, and even built and tested such flying devices, which border on the fantastic. According to information confirmed by experts and collaborators, the first projects involving "flying discs" began in 1941. The blueprints for these projects were furnished by German experts Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe, and the Italian expert Bellonzo [Belluzzo].

Habermohl and Schriever chose a flat hoop which spun around a fixed pilot's cabin in the shape of a dome. It consisted of steerable disc wings which enabled, according to the direction of their placement, in horizontal takeoff or flight. Miethe developed a kind of disk 42 meters in diameter, to which steerable nozzles had been attached. Schriever and Habermohl, who had worked together in Prague, took off on February 14, 1945 in the first "flying disc". They attained a height of 12,400 meters in three minutes and a horizontal flight speed of 2000 Kmh. It had been expected to reach speeds of up to 4000 Kmh.

Massive initial tests and research work were involved prior to undertaking the manufacture of the project. Due to the high rate of speed and the extraordinary heat demands, it was necessary to find particular materials in order to resist the effects of the high temperatures. Project development, which had run into the millions, was practically concluded by the final days of the war. All existing models were destroyed at the end of the conflict, but the factory at Breslau in which Miethe had worked fell into the hands of the Soviets, who seized all the material and technical personnel and shipped them to Siberia, where successful work on "flying saucers" was conducted.

Schriever was able to leave Prague on time, but Habermohl must be in the Soviet Union, since nothing more is known concerning his whereabouts. The aged German builder, Miethe, is in the United States developing, it is said, "flying saucers" for the A.V. Roe Company in the U.S.A. and in Canada.

Schriever continued to work on the project until April 15, 1945. About this time Prag was threatened by the advancing Soviet Army. The saucer prototype(s) at Prag-Gbell were pushed out onto the runway and burnt. Habermohl disappeared and is presumed to have ended up in the hands of the Soviets. Schriever, according to his own statements, packed the saucer plans in the trunk of his BMW and with his family drove into the relative security of Bavaria. After cessation of hostilities Schriever worked his way north to his parents house in Bremerhaven-Lehe. He later worked for the U.S. Army. 

The history of the Schriever-Habermohl project in Prag can be summarized in a nutshell as follows: Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to both the Schriever-Habermohl and the Miethe-Belluzzo projects  stated that it was his design and model which formed the basis for this project. This model was given to General Ernst Udet which was then later forwarded to General Dr. Walter Dornberger at Peenemünde. Dr. Dornberger tested and recommended the design which was confirmed by Dornberger to Epp after the war A facility was set up in Prag for further development and the Schriever-Habermohl team was assigned to work on it there. At first this project was under the auspices of Hermann Göring and the Luftwaffe. Sometime later, the Speer Ministry took over the running of this project with chief engineer Georg Klein in charge. Finally, the project was usurped by the SS in 1944, along with other saucer projects, and fell under the control of Kammler. Schriever altered the length of the wing-vanes from their original design. This alteration caused the instability. Schriever was still trying to work out this problem in his version of the saucer as the Russians overran Prag. Habermohl, according to Epp, went back to his original specifications, with two or three successful flights for his version.

Toward the end of the war, all the models and prototypes were reported destroyed before they could be found by the Soviets. According to postwar U.S. intelligence reports, however, the Russian army succeeded in capturing one prototype.

Viktor Schauberger [1885-1958], an Austrian inventor who was closely involved with Hitler's Third Reich, worked on the advancement of a number of flying disc-shaped craft for the Nazis between 1938 and 1945. Based on "liquid vortex propulsion" many of them, according to records, actually flew. One "flying saucer" [fliegende Untertasse] reputedly destroyed at Leonstein, had a diameter of 1.5 meters, weighed 135 kilos, and was started by an electric motor of one twentieth horsepower. The vehicle was equipped with a turbine engine to supply the energy required for liftoff. The Russians blew up Schauberger's apartment in Leonstein, after taking what remained following an earlier visit by the Americans.

Schauberger supposedly was later involved in working on a top secret project in Texas for the U.S. Government and died shortly afterwards of ill health.

Habermohl was reported, by U.S. Army Military Intelligence, as having been taken to the Soviet Union.

Russia developed a flying saucer with the help of Josef Andreas Epp.


Dr. Miethe, went to Canada and worked on a joint Canadian-American saucer project,  "Project Silver Bug".  It was located at an airfield near Toronto, Ontario. (This was Avro Aircraft Limited.)

AVRO Canada Miethe Disc prototype in flight over Ontario.

Photo taken by RCAF
but requests for photo negative reported as "missing"
by Canadian Ministry of Defense.

Heinrich Fleissner was an engineer, designer and technical advisor for the German Peenemünde saucer project. On March 28, 1955, he filed a patent application with the United States Patent Office for a flying saucer. It was not granted until June 7, 1960.  (The patent number is 2,939,648).


Zwicky, Viktor, Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich, "Das Rätsel der Fliegenden Teller Ein Interview mit Oberingenieur Georg Klein, der unseren Lesern Ursprung und Konstruktion dieser Flugkörper erklärt" September 19, 1954

Klein, Georg, "Die Fliegenden Teller", Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich

Der Spiegel, March 30, 1959, "Untertassen: Sie fliegen aber doch" October 16, 1954, Article about and interview of Rudolf Schriever

Unidentified flying objects were sighted occasionally during World War II; they flew closely behind the fighting factions' bombers and briefly pursued them. The flying objects were named “Foo Fighters”. The Allies assumed they were dealing with a secret German weapon, while the Germans thought they were an American or Russian secret weapon.

After the war the Allies began delving into extensive documents they had confiscated, which related to German secret weaponry said to have been developed and tested by Germany during the war. The problem of the “Foo Fighters” appeared to be resolved. The “flying saucers” sighted until that time were German secret weapons. What should one believe about all this?

The German so-called “flying tops” or "Foo Fighters," allegedly were flying machines capable of taking off and landing vertically. As well, they could fly either horizontally at exceptionally high speeds, or for that matter, in at any direction or angle by virtue of a rotary disk system, which revolved around a stationary central hull. It is reasonable to assume that such a device would be of interest for military deployment. Purportedly, these “flying tops” achieved horizontal Mach 2 to 2.3 acceleration in 1944 and were capable of climbing to an altitude of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) in approximately 2 minutes.

The newspapers generally made mention of two different models - the “Foo Fighters” and the flak-mine known as the "V7".

Rudolf Schriever, according to reports, produced the first of the “Flying Tops” in Prague, the capital of former Czechoslovakia. However, his creation was never flown. Under adventurous circumstances he had to flee from Prague with all his blueprints in hand. He penetrated the American lines and reached the Bayrischer Wald [Bavarian Forest], where he found refuge as a farmhand among the local farmers. Returning to the farm one day, he discovered his quarters had been completely ransacked. From the time Schriever read reports about “flying saucers” appearing over American skies several years later, he felt certain he knew into whose hands his blueprints had fallen.

Dr. Richard Miethe declared:

I venture to say that the flying disks, if they are circling in the sky, were constructed in Germany according to my directions, and then were probably copied on a large scale by the Soviets.

The “Flugscheibe” Miethe had developed were a disk-shaped advanced development of the V-weaponry. The "V7" flak-mine had an alleged range of 21,000 kilometers [13,000 miles]. Hitler decided too late to mass-produce these "V7" units and, therefore, they never saw action.

Many discrepancies were discovered in the countless press reports about these secret German weapons.

Here are but a few examples: One source reported that Schriever's Flying Top” was built in 1942, while various others quote the year as 1941. Another source even provided a precise construction date: July 15, 1941.


A C.I.A. document dated August 18, 1952
mentioning that the Germans were building "flying saucers" as early as 1941.
From the German book Die Dunkle Seite Des Mondes (The Dark Side of the Moon) by Brad Harris
(1996, Pandora Books, Germany)

More intriguing is the claim by chief engineer Georg Klein that on February 14, 1945, he witnessed the maiden flight of this aircraft. According to Schriever, however, the unit never even left the ground because it was destroyed before its maiden flight. Furthermore, in the addendum of the 8th Air Fleet war log, a weather report dated February 14, 1945, states that at the time of the alleged maiden flight, extremely low clouds, rain, snow, and poor visibility enveloped the region. These poor weather conditions would not permit the takeoff of such a revolutionary flying device's first voyage. With a solid cloud cover ranging from 8/10 to 10/10 a mere 400 to 800 meters [1200 - 2400 ft] above the ground, the flying device would have been out of sight almost immediately after takeoff.

The entire story about German “flying tops” remains highly unbelievable, therefore, because of the weather and also for technological production reasons.

To achieve the 1000 rpm turbine speed mentioned in the description of the disks, a centripetal acceleration of 26,200 G magnitude of acceleration would be required, which is normally only encountered in small-calibre projectile weapons technology. The mounting of the BMW 003 turbine weighing 560 kg or 1,234 lb would require massive and extremely strong steel bolts with a diameter of approximately 140 mm [5.5"]. This extremely heavy mounting assembly would only have been sufficient to support the turbojet engine when it was stationary! Once operational, the turbojet engine would create a bending moment of 110,000 kilopond-meters (kpm) [1,079,000 Newton-meters or 796,000 lb-ft]. This bending moment was apparently not considered in the design of the actual functional unit and, therefore, it was not practicable to produce as designed.

For the unit's flight weight of approximately 3 tons, Shriever would have required 2 tons of extremely high quality metal, countless instruments and five jet engines --- while at the time the "procurement" of these unusual materials and engines was unattainable for him. They could only have been requisitioned through official channels with the required paperwork itemizing all specifications and justifications. The appropriate agency was informed and a file set up for it. The documentation was preserved intact by Speer’s government agency in spite of wartime confusion, and it included superbly detailed information about raw material distribution, personnel activities, project leadership, etc. It is worth noting that the complete, uninterrupted written documentation for the period between August 15, 1939 and December 31, 1944, makes no mention whatsoever about the German “Foo Fighters."

Hence, Schriever's “Flying Top”, never did get off the ground, and the "V7" developed by Dr. Miethe was never put into service. Assuming the Americans or Soviets did indeed seize the blueprints of these German “saucer developers,” neither power could have developed such flying devices in a mere two-year period, when the first unknown flying objects appeared en masse. Furthermore, American bomber crews had previously observed unknown flying objects over Germany throughout World War II.

In conclusion, it appears that no German “Foo Fighters” or “Flying Discs” were built or flown. There is nothing to indicate that the unknown flying objects (UFOs), which had been observed for years, were advanced American or Russian modifications of Germany's secret weaponry.


"Fliegende Untertassen" by R. Strehl -- Oldenkott-Rees
"Luftfahrt International", Nr. 9, May-June 1975
"Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung" by R. Lusar, J.F. Lehmanns Verlag
"Untertassen - Flieger - Kombination", Der Spiegel, March 30, 1950
"Flugkreisel, irdisch", Heim & Welt, #14, April 2, 1950
"Erste Flugscheibe flog 1945 in Prag", Interview with Chief Engineer Klein, Welt am Sonntag, April 25, 1953
"Wunderwaffen 45", Bild am Sonntag, February 17, 1957
"Die UFOs - eine deutsche Erfindung", Das neue Zeitalter, #41, October 5, 1957
"Deutsche UFOs schon 1947/48 einwandfrei beobachtet", Das neue Zeitalter, #6, February 6, 1965

To this day there is infighting about if the prototypes described by Klein, Miethe and Schriever, for example, were really capable of flight. While a group of people involved in the subject consider it fully possible, others came to the conclusion that these vehicles are technically impossible since the necessary demands of the centrifugal and acceleration forces claimed exceed the strength of the materials available at that time. Furthermore the equipment with high grade technics (drive trains) was impossible due to the universal materiel shortages.

One (not mentioned by name) critic of the Flugkreisel subject expressed himself very negatively on the entire subject in an edition of the magazine Luftfahrt International (Nr. 9, May/June 1975). His technological reservations represent a sort of summation for other critics of the German Flying Disc Mythos:

The whole story is incorrect from every angle. It is in fact highly unbelievable and would in all likelihood have died out in the 50s if, at that time, a technician had paid closer attention to this strange conception and done a few calculations. It would quickly have become evident that with the claimed 1800 rpm incredibly tremendous centrifugal acceleration forces would manifest themselves, forces that in this order of magnitude (26,200 g) are only known in experienced with armaments and even there only experienced with small caliber ammunitions. With a weight of 560 kg (BMW 003) of the propulsion unit, massive bolts of high tensile steel would be needed to mount the turbine, which, assuming equal distribution, would require a diameter of 142 mm for a two point attachment and still 116 mm diameter even for a three point one. This enormously heavy suspension would only suffice for a jet drive system at rest, not one in operation! The saucer conceived by Schriever could thus not be realized in the planned configuration. In addition there a more reasons making it impossible. With an operational weight of approximately 3 tons, Schriever and his co-workers would have required about 2 tons of high grade material, numerous instruments and no less than five jet drive assemblies.

At that time there were materiel and engine shortages that could not be alleviated with money alone or even organized. Whoever wanted to carry out such a project then, had to officially submit his list of requirements with the appropriate justification and only then, if approved, received the necessary authorization papers for procurement. In every case the responsible offices received notification of the new project and it was documented. Despite all the confusions of war the files of Speer’s Ministry remained fully intact , as well as the so-called ‘MilchTalks’ (named after Field Marshall Erich Milch, the man responsible for aircraft production at the time) and the war diaries of the various armaments commands containing incredibly detailed reports about raw materiel distribution, staffing, projects progress etc. Strangely enough none of these document collections, of which the Milch Talks alone amount to over 40,000 pages and the war diary of Rüstungs Kommando VII which covers the period 15.8.1939 - 31.12.1944 without a gap, contain even the slightest indication of Schriever’s Flugkreisel, Miethe’s Flugscheibe or the V 7 Flakmine. In other words none of these apparatuses existed; they were neither built, nor much less, flown.

German Saucers - Fact or Fiction? 

The premise of reputable aerospace journalist Nick Cook's book The Hunt for Zero Point is that German scientists developed exotic antigravity technologies, including flying saucers, during World War II. This has been elaborated on the Internet into a cultish historical mythology of saucer types developed by the Nazis during and after the second World War. A key reference in this thesis is a book that appeared in Germany in the 1950's, Rudolf Lusar's Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterenwicklung (German Weapons and Secret Weapons of the Second World War and their later Development). The dialogue on Cook's book since its release includes efforts to portray Lusar as "..the isolated testimony of a disenchanted German major with definite Nazi sympathies" and his book as a collection of "fantastic stories". It is also asserted that the engineers mentioned by Lusar never existed.

The whole thing might be dismissed, but in a USAF technical description of a secret flying saucer being developed in Canada with US government support was declassified. This was just what Lusar asserted.

Well, one way to decide is to go to the original. Through a bookseller one can purchase a copy of Lusar's book. Based on the criticism one would expect a raving tract full of flying saucers and Nazi sympathy. In fact the book (my copy was the third original-language edition, 1959) is an encyclopedia of German weapons technology. In 268 densely-packed pages it provides the dry technical details of every major weapon developed by the Third Reich - from rifles and hand grenades through tanks, artillery, aircraft, rocketry, submarines, naval vessels, chemical and nuclear weapons, radar, infrared detection, and on and on.

Lusar's articles are technically and factually correct and to the point. Indeed, the articles on advanced jet and rocket weapons indicate the author understands the technology involved very well, with the technical parameters correctly described (more so than many other books in the 1950's

The saucer pops up suddenly, complete with a line drawing, on page 151, in a section devoted to 'Special Devices' (The other two such devices are the jet backpack and the helicopter). It is not given special treatment - understandable, given that the performance of the saucer described is considerably less fantastic than that of the V-2 or A9/A10 ICBM covered elsewhere in the book.

So the case for Lusar's book being some kind of neo-Nazi saucer tract falls apart. Before discussing its credibility further, consider this complete translation of German original:

Flying saucers have been appearing around the world since 1947, emerging suddenly here or there, coming and going at extraordinary speeds, with rotating flames shooting from the edge of their disks. Radars have tracked them; fighters have pursued them. Nevertheless no pilot has yet to ram or shoot down a "flying saucer". The world, including the engineering world, stands before either a profound mystery -- or a technical miracle. Only slowly have the facts emerged, that German researchers and scientists took the first steps during the war to develop these "flying saucers". They built and tested aircraft with characteristics bordering on the marvelous.

Confirmed information from specialists and workers on these first projects, called "flying disks", indicates that development began in 1941. These devices were designed by the German experts Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe and the Italian Bellonzo. Habermohl and Schriever designed a broad planar ring, which rotated around a fixed control cupola. This disk wing could be rotated into the appropriate position as required for vertical takeoff or horizontal flight. Miethe developed the 42-m-diameter discus-shaped disk, into which adjustable jet nozzles were installed. On 14 February 1945, Habermohl, working in Prague, tested the first "flying disk". In three minutes the craft reached an altitude of 12,400 m and a horizontal flight speed of 2000 kph ( ! ). The design was planned to reach speeds of 4000 kph.

Extensive preliminary tests and research work were necessary before construction could begin. Because of the high speed and the extraordinary thermal stress, suitable heat-resistant materials had to be identified. The development, which cost millions, was near completion at the end of the war. At war's end the existing prototypes were destroyed. However the work in Breslau, where Miethe worked, fell into the hands of the Soviets. They took all the materials and specialists to Siberia, where work on these "flying saucers" is successfully continuing.

Schriever escaped from Prague in time. Habermohl might be in the Soviet Union, since he disappeared without a trace. It has been disclosed that the formerly German technical designer Miethe is in the USA and has developed such "flying saucers" for the USA and Canada at the A. V. Roe Company. The American Air Force received the instructions years ago not to shoot at "flying saucers". This is an indication that there are indeed American "flying saucers" which must not be endangered. The devices observed so far are in the sizes of 16, 42, 45 and 75 m in diameter and develop speeds up to 7000 kph ( ? ). As early as 1952 "flying saucers" were observed over Korea. Such devices were also observed and reported by the press during NATO maneuvers in the Alsace in the autumn of 1954. The fact that "flying saucers" exist can no longer be denied. It is likely that continued official refusal to acknowledge there existence in America is due to development there not having been completed yet. Any disclosure might be of use to the Soviet Union in their own program. Further it seems that there is a reluctance to proceed with the technology. It has been recognized that these new "flying saucers" are vastly superior to normal airplanes - including modern turbojet-driven aircraft - in flight performance, load-carrying capacity and agility, thereby making them utterly obsolete. .

Note in later editions: A news report from Washington at the end of 1955 indicates that the US Air Force will soon flight test aircraft, which completely correspond in their appearance to the common conception of a "flying saucer". Air Force Undersecretary Donald Querles stated that these flight models could take off perpendicularly and would have the form of a disk. They would not need expensive runways for operation.

This single article neatly summarizes Cook's entire book. The German's developed saucer technology during World War II. It was taken over by the Americans after the war. It was successfully developed, but never advanced because it represented a threat to the technology adopted by the American military-industrial complex. The difference is that these saucers are powered by conventional jet engines, not any exotic antigravity drive.

Another criticism of Lusar is that he is merely summarizing reports made in the European press in 1950-1954. In particular these are a report on flying saucers in Der Spiegel of 30 March 1950, which contains a paragraph on Schriever and an artist's concept of the saucer; an interview with Richard Miethe in France-Soir of 7 June 1952; and an interview with a Georg Klein, in Die Welt am Sonntag of 14 February 1953. This is certainly true, especially as regards the interview with Klein. However note Lusar's use of the word confirmed in his article ("..Confirmed information from specialists and workers on these first projects..") This would seem to indicate that he had some kind of independent confirmation of the reports.

It is also asserted that the German engineers he mentions as being involved in the saucer project cannot be found in any documentation after the war. Some deny that any of them exist. However this is unconvincing. The same can be said of a nearly all of the shadowy German high-technology specialists who worked on missile projects in post-war Spain, Egypt, and Argentina. These names appear nowhere on the American Object List of Scientists.

Let's consider each of these engineers in turn:

• Rudolf Schriever certainly existed. He was interviewed, together with photographs, in several German newspapers between 1950 and 1953. He is not heard of after 1953. Some Internet sources say he died in a car crash that year (oddly enough, nobody has followed up on the possibly sinister implication of this). Schriever is a not uncommon surname in Germany, and is concentrated around Bremen, which is where Lusar's Schriever is said to have lived. Schriever's activities are attested in a CIA press roundup from Africa:

Inventor in West Germany Perfects "Flying Saucer" -- Conakry, La Guinee Francise, 20 November 1952:

The first patent for a "flying saucer" was recently applied for in West Germany by Rudolf Schriever, a former pilot, who claimed to have perfected an "elliptical flying object" after 11 years of research.

The inventor claimed that the craft, equipped with motors, has a diameter of 40 meters and can rise and descend vertically or remain motionless in the air. He estimated its maximum speed as 4,000 kilometers per hour.

• Richard Miethe is said not to exist, there being no confirmation of his existence aside from Lusar and the France-Soir interview. However that interview with Miethe, when read in its entirety, is convincing and has several obscure details of his postwar service in Egypt that are verified by other sources. On 15 July 1959, a UFO New York newsletter, ridiculed the Canadian Avro saucer story and reported that personal contact with Avro indicated they knew nothing about a Miethe. But given that the project was so secret that it was not declassified until 1995, such a denial is not surprising. In modern Germany those bearing this name are heavily concentrated on the easternmost border, particularly around Gorlitz.

• No trace is said to exist of a Habermohl, and it is asserted that this is not even a German name. That is certainly true. However Habermehl is a proper German name, of average occurrence, with an estimated 1296 persons bearing this name in modern Germany. They are concentrated in Vogelsbergkreis, in Hessen, north of Frankfurt.

• Professor Giuseppe Belluzzo (not Bellonzo) was a leading Italian turbine specialist and built the first turbine-powered train in Italy in 1907. Belluzzo was born in Verona in 1876. He taught in Milan and then Rome, and was the author of more than fifty technical books. He was also involved in installing turbines in Italian cruisers and battleships. He later went on to a career in fascist politics. He was elected to Parliament and was Minister of National Economy from 1925 to 1928. In the early 1950's he also gave several press interviews asserting involvement in development of Nazi turbine-powered flying saucers. He died in Rome on 21 May 1952.  

• Georg Klein is not mentioned by Lusar. In the Welt am Sonntag article he is described as a Lead Engineer and ex-functionary in Albert Speer's ministry during the war. He not only describes the project, but asserts that he, together with Speer, personally witnessed a flight test. It can be seen that a lot of Lusar's content was taken from this source. Attempts to link Georg Klein with a historical personage have so far failed - unfortunately Klein is the 15th most common surname in Germany. Various summaries of his interview is also from the CIA archives:

German Engineer States Soviets Have German Flying Saucer Experts and Plans - Athens, I Vrdayni, 13 May 1953:

Vienna (Special Service) -- According to recent reports from Toronto, a number of Canadian Air Force engineers are engaged in the construction of a "flying saucer' to be used as a future weapon of war. The work of these engineers is being carried out in great secrecy at the A. V. Roe Company factories.

Flying saucers have been known to be an actuality since the possibility of their construction was proven in plans drawn up by German engineers toward the end of World War II.

Georg Klein, a German engineer, stated recently that though many people believe the flying saucers to be a postwar development, they were actually in the planning stage in German aircraft factories as early as 1941.

Klein said that he was an engineer in the Ministry of Speer and was present in Prague on 14 February 1945, at the first experimental flight of a flying saucer.

During the experiment, Klein reported, the flying saucer reached an altitude of 12,000 meters within 3 minutes and a speed of 2,200 kph. Klein emphasized that in accordance with German plans, the speed of these saucers would reach 4,000 kph. One difficulty, according to Klein, was the problem of obtaining the materials to be used for the construction of the saucers, but even this had been solved by German engineers toward the end of 1945, and construction of the objects was scheduled to begin, Klein added.

Klein went on to state that three experimental models had been readied for tests by the end of 1944, built according to two completely different principles of aerodynamics. One type actually had the shape of a disc, with an interior cabin, and was built by the Miethe factories, which had also built the V-2 rockets. This model was 42 meters in diameter. The other model had a shape of a ring, with raised sides and a spherically shaped pilot's cabin placed on the outside, in the center of the ring. This model was built at the Habermohl and Schriever factories.

Both models had the ability to take off vertically and to land in an extremely restricted area, like helicopters.

During the last few days of the war, when every hope for German victory had been abandoned, the engineers in the group stationed in Prague carried out orders to destroy completely all their plans on their model before the Soviet forces arrived. The engineers at the Miethe factories in Breslau, however, were not warned in sufficient time of the Soviet approach, and the Soviets therefore succeeded in seizing their material. Plans, as well as specialized personnel, were immediately sent directly to the Soviet Union under heavy guard, coincidental with the departure from Berlin of the creator of the Stuka, who later developed the Mig-13 and -15 in the Soviet Union.

According to the report, nothing is known of the whereabouts of Habermohl since his disappearance form Prague; Schriever died recently in Bremen; and Miethe, who escaped in a Messerschmidt 163, is in the US.

Klein was of the opinion that the saucers are at present being constructed in accordance with German technical principles and expressed the belief that they will constitute serious competition to the jet-propelled airplanes.

Klein further stated that it was very possible to construct flying saucers for civilian air travel; they could carry 30-40 passengers at a speed of 4,000 kph. He added, however, that the tremendous amount of material necessary for their construction did not warrant their being built exclusively for civilian air travel. His opinion was shared, he stated, by Giuseppe Belluzzo, the Italian specialist with whom Klein has been corresponding for some time.

And a further report with some additional details:

Describes Saucer Experiments - Capetown, Die Landste, 9 January 1954

A German newspaper recently published an interview with Georg Klein, famous German engineer and aircraft expert, describing the experimental construction of flying saucers carried out by him from 1941 to 1945. Klein stated that he was present when, in 1945, the first piloted flying saucer took off and reached a speed of 1,300 mph within three minutes. The experiments resulted in three designs: one, designed by Meithe, was a disk-shaped aircraft, 135 feet in diameter, which did not rotate; another, designed by Habermohl and Schriever, consisted of a large rotating ring, in the center of which was a round, stationary cabin for the crew. When the Soviets occupied Prague, the Germans destroyed every trace of the flying saucer project and nothing more was heard of Habermohl and his assistants. Schriever recently died in Bremen, where he had been living. In Breslau, the Soviets managed to capture one of the saucers built by Miethe, who escaped to France. He is reportedly in the US at present.

The declassified 1955 report on the Avro "Silverbug" saucer indicates that at that time it was still purely a design, with not even wind tunnel work being completed. Officially this design led only to the Avro Avrocar, a modest subscale prototype used to study the operation of a saucer in ground effect in 1959-1961. Officially Miethe or the Germans had no involvement with the project, and the Silverbug was conceived by Avro Chief Engineer John Frost in 1951-1953.

And yet consider the similarity of performance figures for Lusar's "ridiculous" saucer and the smaller Avro Silverbug research aircraft:

Parameter     Lusar   Silverbug  


  42.0 m   8.9 m
Time to 11,000 m   2.66 minutes   1.76 minutes
Supercruise speed     2200 kph   2800 kph
Max speed in afterburner   4000 kph   3700 kph

The most likely scenario is that there was indeed a German turbojet-powered saucer project; that the persons named did indeed work on it; that it was indeed investigated by both the Americans and the Soviets in great secrecy after the war.

However, it is also apparent that it was a technological dead end (given the fact we are not flying in saucer airliners). The same was true of a lot of Nazi technology about which there is no question - the ramjet, the flying wing, the delta wing, the rocket fighter, the Sänger Antipodal boost-glide bomber. All of these were investigated at enormous expense after the war, often with the assistance of captured German engineers. Prototypes were tested, and the technology was often found to offer advantages. But in no case did the technology divert the course of current aerospace technology.

This may be because the technology didn't work as advertised. The Avrocar had stability problems and was not officially known to have been pursued further. The Silverbug design has a lot of complex draggy rotating machinery and inlets. It may be that wind tunnel tests revealed it could never reach the advertised supersonic speeds (the Air Force report has a whiff of skepticism in this regard). Heavily classified 'black' programs have always been a good place to bury Congressional examination of expensive technical failures.

It may also be, as Lusar hinted and Cook asserts, that the technology worked but would be disruptive to the entrenched aerospace-industrial complex.

It should also be noted that, following a decade of experimentation with aerospace technology after the war, the world selected a few 'best solutions' and has stuck with them ever since. 'Good enough' trumped 'better'. This is certainly the position of advocates of flying wings, hovercraft, WIG aircraft, single-stage-to-orbit rockets, and intercontinental supersonic, hypersonic, or rocket transports. All of these technologies have their fans, who are certain that just a little more development would bring the technical advantages into production. But the accountants and bureaucrats are not interested.

A failure of imagination?

Officially the Silverbug never flew. UFO fans have however noted the similarity between the Canadian Silverbug and some of the UFO's sighted and photographed over the years in the Pacific Northwest.

Original materials on this site are so marked and are © Luke Ford, 2006 - 2013. Permission is granted to use these.
Do not contact us regarding permission to use graphics! Any such use should be at your own risk and this site should not be credited.

Robert Jungk's 1956 book Heller als tausend Sonnen [Brighter than a Thousand Suns] was first published in English in 1958. An impressive history of the development of the atomic bomb, it contains (at page 87 in the 1965 Pelican edition) a curious footnote, which has been used to add credibility to the 'Saucer Builder' legends. Referring to a sentence in the text where Jungk says "The indifference of Hitler and those about him to research in natural science amounted to positive hostility", the footnote says:

The only exception to the lack of interest shown by authority was constituted by the Air Ministry. The Air Force research workers were in a peculiar position. They produced interesting new types of aircraft such as the Delta (triangular) and 'flying discs'. The first of these 'flying saucers', as they were later called – circular in shape, with a diameter of some 45 yards – were built by the specialists Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe. They were first airborne on 14 February 1945 over Prague and reached in three minutes a height of nearly eight miles. they had a flying speed of 1250 mph which was doubled in subsequent tests. It is believed that after the war Habermohl fell into the hands of the Russians. Miethe developed at a later date similar 'flying saucers' at A V Roe and Company for the United States.


The Schriever-Habermohl Project(s)

This project is referred to as the Schriever-Habermohl project although it is by no means clear that these were the individuals in charge of the project. Rudolf Schriever was an engineer and test pilot. Less is known about Otto Habermohl but certainly he was an engineer. This project was centered in Prag, at the Prag-Gbell airport (l)(2). 

Site of the Schriever and Habermohl Flying Saucer Projects
In the top diagram the hangar which was the site of the research is marked  as number 2.
The same hangar is indicated in the picture below with an arrow.

Actual construction work began somewhere between 1941 and 1943 (3)(4).This was originally a Luftwaffe project which received technical assistance from the Skoda Works at Prag and at a Skoda division at Letov (5) and perhaps elsewhere (6). Other firms participating in the project according to Epp were the Junkers firm at Oscheben and Bemburg, the Wilhelm Gustloff firm at Weimarand the Kieler Leichtbau at Neubrandenburg (7). This project started as a project of the Luftwaffe, sponsored by second-in-command, Ernst Udet. It then fell under the control of Speer's Armament Ministry at which time it was administered by engineer Georg Klein. Finally, probably sometime in 1944, this project came under the control of the SS, specifically under the purview of General Hans Kammler (8).


   Photo taken near Prague, circa 1944-45

According to his own words, Georg Klein saw this device fly on February 14, 1945 (9). This may have been the first official flight, but it was not the first flight made by this device. According to one witness, a saucer flight occurred as early as August or September of 1943 at this facility. The eyewitness was in flight-training at the Prag-Gbell facility when he saw a short test flight of such a device. He states that the saucer was 5 to 6 meters in diameter (about 15 to 18 feet in diameter) and about as tall as a man, with an outer border of 30-40 centimeters. It was "aluminum" in color and rested on four thin, long legs. The flight distance observed was about 300 meters at low level of one meter in altitude. The witness was 200 meters from the event and one of many students there at the time (10).

JoseF Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to both the Schriever-Habermohl and the Miethe-Belluzzo projects, states that fifteen prototypes were built in all (11) (12). The final device associated with Schriever-Habermohl is described by engineer Rudolf Lusar who worked in the German Patent Office, as a central cockpit surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes forming a circle. The vanes were held together by a band at the outer edge of the wheel-like device. The pitch of the vanes could be adjusted so that during take off more lift was generated by increasing their angle from a more horizontal setting. In level flight the angle would be adjusted to a smaller angle.This is similar to the way helicopter rotors operate. The wing-vanes were to be set in rotation by small rockets placed around the rim like a pinwheel. Once rotational speed was sufficient, lift-off was achieved. After the craft had risen to some height the horizontal jets or rockets were ignited and the small rockets shut off (13). After this the wing-blades would be allowed to rotate freely as the saucer moved forward as in an auto-gyrocopter. In all probability, the wing-blades speed, and so their lifting value, could also be increased by directing the adjustable horizontal jets slightly upwards to engage the blades, thus spinning them faster at the digression of the pilot.

Rapid horizontal flight was possible with these jet or rocket engines. Probable candidates were the Junkers Jumo 004 jet engines such as were used on the famous German jet fighter, the Messerschmitt 262. A possible substitute would have been the somewhat less powerful BMW 003 engines. The rocket engine would have been the Walter HWK109 which powered the Messerschmitt 163 rocket interceptor (14). If all had been plentiful, the Junkers Jumo 004 probably would have been the first choice. Epp reports Jumo 211/b engines were used (15). Klaas reports the Argus pulse jet (Schmidt-duct), used on the V-l, was also considered (16). All of these types of engines were difficult to obtain at the time because they were needed for high priority fighters and bombers, the V-l and the rocket interceptor aircraft.

In Schriever’s postwar drawings one can clearly see that the jets depicted are not German conventional ones
for the time period. While some illustrators depict BMW 003 and Jumo 004 jet engines in place,
the engines were in fact kerosene burning jet turbines of immense power
This places the Flugkreisel's true first flight well into 1943 or beyond.

JoseF Andreas Epp reports in his book Die Realität der Flugscheiben (The Reality of the Flying Discs) that an official test flight occurred in February of 1945. Epp managed to take two still pictures of the saucer in flight which appear in his book. There is some confusion about the date of these pictures. In the video film "UFOs Secrets of the 3rd Reich", Epp states these pictures were taken in the Fall of 1944. In his book the date is given as the official date of February 14, 1945. In personal correspondence to me of December, 30, 1991, he indicated the date of the pictures as August, 1944. In that correspondence he further revealed that the official flight had been February 14, 1945 but an earlier lift-off had taken place in August of 1944. The pictures show a small disc-like object in the distance at some altitude posed above a landscape. The saucer is at too great a distance and altitude to show any mechanical detail. As Klaus-Peter Rothkugel points out, the foliage on the trees indicates the August date as being the most accurate.

Very high performance flight characteristics are attributed to this design. Georg Klein says it climbed to 12,400 meters (over 37,000 feet) in three minutes (17) and attaining a speed around that of the sound barrier (18). Epp says that it achieved a speed of Mach 1 (about 1200 kilometers per hour or about 750 miles per hour) (19). From his discussion, it appears that Epp is describing the unofficial lift-off in August, 1944 at this point. He goes on to say that on the next night, the sound barrier was broken in manned flight but that the pilot was frightened by the vibrations encountered at that time (20). On the official test flight, Epp reports a top speed of 2200 kilometers per hour (21). Lusar reports a top speed of 2000 kilometers per hour (22). Many other writers cite the same or similar top speed. There is no doubt of two facts. The first is that these are supersonic speeds which are being discussed. Second, it is a manned flight which is under discussion.

But at least one writer has discounted such high performance (23). It is argued that the large frontal area of one of the possible designs in question makes Mach 2 flight impossible. The argument seems to be that given the possible power plants the atmospheric resistance caused by this frontal area would slow the craft to a point below the figures stated earlier.

Some new information has come to light regarding the propulsion system which supports the original assessment. Although actual construction had not started, wind-tunnel and design studies confirmed the feasibility of building a research aircraft which was designated Project 8-346. This aircraft was not a saucer but a modern looking swept-back wing design. According this post-war Allied intelligence report, the Germans designed the 8-346 to flying the range of 2000 kilometers per hour to Mach 2. (24).Interestingly enough, it was to use two Walther HWK109 rocket engines. This is one of the engine configurations under consideration for the Schriever-Habermohl saucer project [and powered the Messerschmitt Me 163 and Bachem Ba 349 aircraft].

As an aside, it should be noted that there are those who will resist at any attempt to impugn the official breaking of the sound barrier by Chuck Yeager in 1947 in the Bell X-l rocket aircraft. They had better brace themselves. This record has also been challenged from another direction. This challenge was reported in February, 2001, by the Associated Press, Berlin. It seems that a certain Hans Guido Mutke claims he pushed his Messerschmitt jet fighter, the Me-262, through the sound barrier in 1945. This occurred during an emergency dive to help another German flyer during air combat. At that time he experienced vibrations and shaking of the aircraft. According to the report, a Hamburg Professor is working on a computer simulation in order to check the validity of this claim. [A computer-based performance analysis of the Me 262 carried out in 1999 at the Munich Technical University concluded that the Me 262 could indeed exceed Mach 1].

Returning to the topic at hand, Schriever continued to work on the project until April 15, 1945. About this time Prag was threatened by the Soviet Army. The Czech technicians working on this project were reported to have gone amuck, looting the facility as the Russians approached. The saucer prototype(s) at Prag-Gbell were pushed out onto the tarmac and burnt. Habermohl disappeared and presumably ended up in the hands of the Soviets. Schriever, according to his own statements, packed the saucer plans in the trunk of his BMW and with his family drove into Southern Germany. After cessation of hostilities Schriever worked his way north to his parents house in Bremerhaven-Lehe. There Schriever set up an inventor-workshop. On August 4, 1948t here was a break in to the workshop in which Schriever's plans and saucer model were stolen (25). Schriever was approached by agents of "foreign powers" concerning his knowledge of German saucers. He declined their offers, preferring rather menial work driving a truck for the U.S. Army (25).

Schriever is reported to have died shortly thereafter in 1953.

There is a report, however, that his death was reported prematurely and that he was identified by a witness who knew him in Bavaria in 1964 or 1965 (26). The publisher of this book, Thomas Mehner, was so kind as to send me a copy of the statement by a Bavarian woman who knew Schriever and made this claim (27). This means that there is a possibility that Schriever did do post-war work on flying saucers.

Interestingly enough, Schriever never claimed that his saucer ever flew at all! If this true, Schriever's saucer was still in the pre-flight stage at the time of the Russian advance and its ultimate destruction on the Prag-Gbell tarmac. This is in direct contradiction to the sources cited above and the photographic evidence. How can this seeming inconsistency be explained?

Josef Andeas Epp has always maintained that it was he who originated the type of design used in the Schriever-Habermohl project (28). He states in his book that the imbalance in the ring of wing-vanes which plagued the early Schriever-Habermohl prototypes was a deviation from his original design in which the wing-vanes were lengthened. He states that when they returned to his original design, the saucer was able to take off (29) (30). He referred to the saucer used in the August, 1944 unofficial lift-off, the saucer whose wing-vanes had been altered and then corrected through his intervention, as the "Habermohlische Version", the Habermohl version (31)

Could the discrepancy referred to above be accounted for if there were actually two lines of saucers built by Schriever and Habermohl? In other words, could the Schriever-Habermohl project have actually been a Schriever project and a Habermohl project, two separate designs within the team? Georg Klein seems to answer this question, stating that "three constructions" which were finished at Prag by the end of 1944. One of these, he says, was a design by Dr. Miethe (32). The best interpretation of the words of both Epp and Klein would indicate that both Schriever and Habermohl each produced their own design. Schriever made no claim that his design flew. Epp claims the Habermohl design did fly in August, 1944 and again in February 14, 1945. This was the saucer witnessed by both Klein and Epp in flight.



                On the left is the Schriever design while on the right is the Habermohl design. Note the differing dimensions of the vane blades. This difference caused instability in the Schriever design.
-- Drawings adapted from the work of Klaus-Peter Rothkugel

Therefore, the history of the Schriever-Habermohl project in Prag can be summarized in a nutshell as follows: Epp's statement is that it was his design and model which formed the basis for this project. This model was given to General Erst Udet which was then forwarded to Dr. Walter Dornberger at Peenemünde. Dr. Dornberger tested and recommended the design (33) which was confirmed by Dornberger to Epp after the war (34). A facility was set up in Prag for further development and the Schriever- Habermohl team was assigned to work on it there. At first this project was under the auspices of Hermann Göring and the Luftwaffe (35). Sometime later the Speer Ministry took over the running of this project with chief engineer Georg Klein in charge(36). Finally, the project was usurped by the SS in 1944, along with other saucer projects, and fell under the purview of Dr. Hans Kammler (37). Schriever altered the length of the wing-vanes from their original design. This alteration caused the instability. Schriever was still trying to work out this problem in his version of the saucer as the Russians overran Prag. Haberrmohl, according to Epp, went back to his original specifications, with two or three successful flights for his version.

While speaking of flight success, two more pieces of important evidence exists which were supplied by Andreas Epp. One comes in the form of a statement by a German test pilot, Otto Lange, given years after the war to Andreas Epp. In that statement, signed by Lange, Epp is credited with the idea behind the invention of the flying saucer and states that none other than Dr. Walter Dornberger had a hand in its development. He also makes the astonishing claim that he, personally, test flew this flying saucer for 500 kilometers in the course of testing (38) (39).


  Original and author's translation of letter signed by Lange acknowledging Epp's role in flying disc history

Otto Lange is a person who is known historically and independently of any connection to Epp. Lange is mentioned in U.S. intelligence documents as a member of the "Rüstungsstab" (Armament Staff) for aircraft (40). There is is some confusion on this issue since a German researcher, Klaus-Peter Rothkugel, has found evidence for three individuals with this name serving in the German military at this time. Mr. Rothkugel, has suggested that the statement by Lange, discussed above, was, in fact, written by Epp based on known examples of Epp's hand writing. It was signed by another hand, so perhaps Epp and Lange had a chance meeting in 1965 wherein the letter was drafted by Epp in an effort to further document his, at that time, little-acknowledged involvement in the German saucer projects.

The second piece of evidence, also supplied by Epp, is a wartime Letter from Prag, dated March, 1944. It speaks to the conditions behind German lines with its opening greeting, simply "Still Alive!". It follows in a cryptic style describing historically well known political and military people who apparently knew or had something to do with the saucer project at Prag. The letter also describes some early prototype saucer models and their shortcomings. Interestingly enough figures on thrust are given. (40) (41).

   On the left is the original letter sent to the author by Andreas Epp.
On the right is a typed version done by Kadmon. Notes in English are directed to the author.
The letter starts without any formal or Informal greeting, stating only "Still alive".
Flying disc research "sehr gut" with vertical take-off at speeds of 860-880 per hour (525-550 miles per hour).

Three pictures appear at the bottom of the letter. One definitely shows a saucer in flight. There is no mention of these pictures in the text of the letter. Because they are not referenced and from their placement on the face of the letter it is possible that these pictures may have been a later addition to that letter. There are some other reasons why these pictures may not have been connected to the Schriever-Habermohl project or the Miethe-Belluzzo project.


   This is a blow-up of the picture attached to J. Andreas Epp's "Still Alive" letter from Prag, March, 1944.
Note air intake ring and crest for steering on the roof of the cabin. Diameter is about six meters.

An interesting fact elucidated by Epp is that the senior experts and advisors for both the Schriever-Habermohl project and the next project to be discussed, the Miethe-Belluzzo project, were exactly the same individuals.


   Original and author's translation of letter signed by Flying Disc Test Pilot Otto Lange 
acknowledging Epp's role in flying disc history

Sources and References

1. Meier, Hans Justus, 1999, page 24, "Zum Thema "FliegendeUntertassen" Der Habermohlsche Flugkreisel", reprinted in Fliegerkalender 1999, Internationales Jahrbuch der Luft-und Raumfahrt, Publisher: Hans M. Namislo, ISBN 3-8132-0553-3
2. Lusar, Rudolf, 1964, page 220, Die Deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung, J.F. Lemanns Verlag, MunicH
3. Lusar, 1964, ibid
4. Epp, Joseph Andreas, 1994, page 28, Die Realität der Flugscheiben, Efodon e.V., c/o Gernot L. Geise,Zoepfstrasse 8, D-82495
5. Epp, 1994, ibid
6. Rothkugel, Klaus-Peter, in personal letters a witness has reported to Mr. Rothkugel the sites of Prag-Rusin, Letov- Werke (Lettow), the Skoda Works at Pressburg/Trentschin
7. Epp, 1994, pages 30-31
8.Epp, 1994, pages 28-33
9. Keller, Werner, Dr., April 25, 1953, Welt am Sonntag, "Erste "Flugscheibe" flog 1945 in Prag enthüllt Speers Beauftrager", an interview of Georg Klein
10. Meier, 1999, page 23
11. Personal letter from J. Andreas Epp dated 12/30/91
12. Epp, 1994, page 27, 30
13. Lusar, 1964, 220
14. Holberg, Jan, 8/20/54, page 4, "UFOs gibt es nicht! Wohl aber: Flugscheiben am laufenden Band!" Das Neue Zeitalter
15. Epp, 1994, page 31
16. Barton, Michael X., 1968, page 38, The German Saucer Story, Futura Press, Los Angeles (based upon Hermann Klaas)
17. Zwicky, Viktor, September 19, 1954, page 4, Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich, "Das Rätsel der Fliegenden Teller Ein Interview mit Oberingenieur Georg Klein, der unseren Lesern Ursprung und Konstruktion dieser Flugkörper erklärt"
18. Klein, Georg, October 16, 1954, page 5, "Die Fliegenden Teller", Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich
Epp, 1994, page 31
20. ibid
21. Epp, 1994, page 34
22. Lusar, 1964, page 220
23. Meier, Hans Justus, 1999, page 10, "Zum Thema 'Fliegende Untertassen' Der Habermohlsche Flugkreisel", Fllegerkalender Internationales Jahrbuch der Luft-und Raumfahrt
Combined Intelligence Committee Evaluation Reports, Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee, Evaluation Report 149,page 8
25. Der Spiegel, March 30, 1959, "Untertassen Sie fliegen aberdoch" Article about and interview of Rudolf Schriever
26. Zunneck, 1998, page 119
27. This written statement, translated from Bavarian dialect to High German was provided courtesy of publisher Thomas Mehner
28. Epp, 1994, page 30
29. Epp, 1994, page 31
30. Personal letter from J. Andreas Epp dated 12/30/91
31. ibid
32. Klein, Georg, October 16, 1954, page 5, "Die "Fliegenden Teller", Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich
33. Epp, 1994, page 26
34. ibid
35. Epp, 1994, page 27
36. Epp, 1994, page 33
37. 17. ibid
38. Kadmon, 2000, Ahnstern IX, "Andreas Epp", Aorta c/o Petak, 53 Postfach 778, A-1011, Wien, Austria
39. Personal letter from Andreas Epp, dated 12/30/91
40. Kadmon, 2000, Ahnstern IX, "Andreas Epp"
41. Epp, 1994, page 31

The Miethe-Belluzzo Project

This saucer project may have been an outgrowth of flying wing research. It was begun in 1942, and was under the on-site authority of Dr. Richard Miethe, sometimes called Dr. Heinrich Richard Miethe. Not much is known about Dr. Miethe before the war. After the war Dr. Miethe is rumored to have worked on the Anglo-American saucer project at the firm of Avro Aircraft Limited of Canada. Such is stated by Klein (1) Epp (2), Barton (3), Lusar (4), as well as a myriad of other sources.

Working with Dr. Miethe was an Italian engineer, Professor Guiseppe Belluzzo. Belluzzo was the Deputy, Senator and Minister of National Economy under Mussolini. He had written several books on technical matters including Steam Turbines in 1926 and Calculations and Installations of Modern Turbine Hydrolics in 1922 (names are English translations of Italian titles). Belluzzo was considered to be an expert in steam turbines. Dr.Belluzzo was not a junior scientist and he was not Dr. Miethe's assistant. He was a senior scientist whose expertise was somehow invaluable on the saucer devices or planned further developments of them.

After the war Belluzzo seems to have led a quiet life in Italy until his death on May 22, 1952. Unlike Miethe, however, Belluzzo went on record about German flying discs after the war. He is quoted on the subject in The Mirror, a major Los Angeles newspaper in 1950. This may be the first mention of the subject in the American press. In his obituary in the New York Times his work on the German saucer program is mentioned.


 On the left, a column from The Mirror, dated March 24, 1950 .
This is one of the earliest English references to German flying discs.
On the right is Dr. Belluzzo's obituary, dated May 22, 1952
from the New York Times which again mentions German flying discs.

This team worked in facilities in, Dresden, Breslau and Letow/Prag according to Epp (5). Both this project and the Schriever and Habermohl projects were directed by the same experts and advisors (6). From Epp's discussion, it is clear that Dr. Walter Dornberger first evaluated and recommended his saucer model for further development (7). Miethe is described by Epp in translation as a "known V-weapons designer" (8). The association of both projects to Peenemünde is clear. Both were sanctioned and set up by officials there, probably by Dr. Walter Dornberger himself. Miethe and Belluzzo worked primarily in Dresden and Breslau but for a brief time they may have actually joined forces with Schriever and Habermohl in Prag, as evidenced by Klein's statement that three saucer models were destroyed on the Prag tarmac (9). One saucer, which Klein he describes as Miethe's was among these. Klein acknowledges that Peenemünde,and its nearby test facility at Stettin, retained and developed the Miethe design as an unmanned vehicle (10)(11).

Epp tells us that the Miethe-Belluzzo project was organized under exactly the same authority as the Schriever-Habermohl project and he further identifies the very same industrial firms which supported Schriever-Habermohl as supporting this project (12). In reality, both should be viewed as one project with different aspects.

The designs envisioned by Dr. Miethe and Professor Belluzzo were quite different from those of Schriever and Habermohl. Designs of this project consisted of a discus-shaped craft whose outer periphery did not rotate. Two designs have positively been attributed to Miethe and Belluzzo  although three designs exist as part of their legacy.

The first design is made known to us from Georg Klein's article in the October 16, 1954 edition of the Swiss newspaper, Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich, mentioned above. The same design is reproduced in the book by J. Andreas Epp. This saucer was not intended to take-off vertically but at an angle as does a conventional airplane. In this design twelve jet engines are shown to be mounted "outboard" to power the craft. The cockpit was mounted at the rear of the vehicle and a periscope was used to monitor directions visually. Notably, a large gyroscope mounted internally at the center of the craft provided stability. This and other Miethe-Belluzzo designs were said to be 42 meters or 138 feet in diameter.


The Miethe-Belluzzo Disc--Design One
On the left is a reconstruction by Georg Klein, October 16, 1854, from the Swiss newswaper Tages-Anzeiger.
Note the small "Stabisator" and the outboard jet engines.
On the right is Klaus-Peter Rothkugel's more probable reconstruction incorporating fins, skids, and the inner-lying Rene Leduc engine.

Aeronautical writer Hans Justus Meier has challenged this design on a number of grounds (13). It is certainly possible, if not probable, that the outboard jet-turbine arrangement is incorrect, one might ask, if this was an outboard jet-turbine design, then what purpose did the bloated central body serve? In reality the twelve jets may simply have been jet nozzles of one engine. Certainly the large central body had a function, it must have housed the engine.

But how could the authenticity of this design come under question when Georg Klein is vouching for it in his article? The answer may be that Klein never saw this design himself and he is simply is relying on the descriptions of those that did. If one reads the works of Klein carefully, he never claims to have seen this model in flight. As a matter of fact, he never claims to have actually seen this design at all. We will return to the flaws with Klein's description momentarily.

The second Miethe design seems to have originated with a 1975 German magazine article (14). This version shows a cockpit above and below the center of the craft. Four jet engines lying behind the cockpits are shown as the power plants. No real detail is supplied in this article. This design is not ever discussed in the text which deals primarily with the Schriever-Habermohl Project. Some writers have speculated on this particular design, supplying detail (15). For now, however, no named source seems to be able to link this design with the Miethe-Belluzzo Project. Therefore, at least for the time being, we must put this design in suspense and focus on the first and next design in discussing the aforementioned saucer project.

The third design attributed to the Miethe-Belluzzo Project comes to us from and article by Jan Holberg in an August 20, 1966 article in Das Neue Zeitalter and also from the Michael X. Barton-Carl F. Mayer-Hermann Klaas connection (16) (17). This design was capable of vertical take-off. Klaas provides internal detail which has been reproduced here.


On the top is Miethe-Belluzzo design two.
Note rotating disc (2) and stabilizing wheel (7) acting as a gyroscope.
(Courtesy of Klaus-Peter Rothkugel)
It is the author's opinion that this design was never built.

On the bottom is Miethe-Belluzzo design three, capable of vertical take-off.

Totally false misidentified
Henri Coanda Lenticular disc that has NOTHING to do with the Flugkreisel project. This was to be powered by 12 Jumo 004s and was rejected as impractical.
A scale model was wind tunnel tested only.
-- Rob Arndt

At first, this appears to be a push-pull propeller system driven by a single engine. It is not. Neither are the twelve jet nozzles unsupported in any way as depicted. The real answer to this mystery is that this drawing is incomplete. With the completed parts depicted, a radial turbojet engine of special type would appear. Design one differs from design three in that the latter, with its centrally located cabin and symmetrical arrangement of twelve adjustable jet nozzles, is controlled by selectively shutting off various jets through the use of a surrounding ring. This allows the saucer to make turns and to take off vertically.

Recently, a German researcher, Klaus-Peter Rothkugel using Vesco as his source (18), has proposed an engine which links the designs one and three, and possibly even design two, while supplying the missing pieces needed to make the engine depicted air-worthy and resolves other problems. This engine was invented by a French engineer, Rene Leduc and probably acquired by the Germans during their occupation of France.

If a flying saucer equipped with this engine were viewed from the outside, no rotating parts would be visible. This is because the engine was totally contained within the metal skin of the saucer. It did rotate but this rotation was within the saucer itself and not viable from the outside. An air space existed all around the spinning engine, between it and the non-rotating outer skin. This engine was a type of radial-flow jet engine. It was this type of engine which probably powered all of Dr. Miethe's saucer designs. It is also the prime candidate for the post-war design of John Frost, the "Flying Manta."

The Flying Manta actually did fly. Pictures of it during a test flight are unmistakable. They were taken on July 7, 1947 by William A. Rhodes over Phoenix, Arizona. It almost goes without saying that the time frame, July of 1947, as well as the geographical location, the American Southwest, as well as the description of the flying object itself, beg comparisons to the saucer which crashed at Roswell, New Mexico, earlier that same month.


   Top: a picture from the July 9, 1947 edition of the Arizona Republic taken by William A. Rhodes
as it flew over his home in Phoenix.   
Lower Left: a drawing of the craft by Klaus-Peter Rothkugel.
Lower Right: one view of the Avro Frost-Manta design, predating the Silver Bug Project.
Was this a captured Miethe-Belluzzo-Leduc saucer?

If one looks at what is known of Dr. Miethe's saucer design, the Leduc engine, and the Frost Manta, it must be acknowledged that a connection between these three not only explains apparent inconsistencies in the existing Miethe designs but also links them to the post-war American Southwest, the precise spot where captured German World War Two technology was being tested and evaluated.




 Top: Hermann Klaas' diagram of the workings of the Miethe-Belluzzo Disc.
Note: intake screw (c) Carrying wing blade (d) affixed to a piston engine, jets nozzles (e) with no apparent engines. Close but not exactly right.
Bottom: Leduc design.
A-Rotor B-Front Bulk-head C-Rear Bulk-head D- Intake Vane
E-Compressor Vane F-Combustion Chamber G-Bulk- head H-Fuel Injection Jets J-Fixed Flame Ring From IVelivoli Del Mistero I seareti technici dei dischi volanti by Renato Vesco 



  This is the mounting of the Leduc engine as illustrated by the later Avro diagram (Canada-USA). The outer hull is fixed.
The inner rotating engine draws in the air from between it and the hull and exhausts through rear or sides as needed for steering.
Compare this design to Miethe- Belluzzo designs, especially to the first design.

There is considerable confusion as to where the first test flight of the Miethe-Belluzzo saucer occurred. Epp tells us that models made by this team were flight tested since 1943. Georg Klein, as well as Andreas Epp, state that a test model of this craft took off from Stettin, in northern Germany, near Peenemuende, roughly where the Oder River meets the Baltic, and crashed in Spitsbergen which are the islands to the north of Norway.

A manned test flight in December, 1944 has been mentioned by Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl in one of the films on which they worked. The pilot named was Joachim Röhlicke or perhaps Hans-Joachim Röhlicke (19). Klaus-Peter Rothkugel reports that Röhlicke was under the direction of none other than Dr. Hans Kammler himself and was stationed at the Gotha Wagonfabrik company (20). The Gotha Wagonfabrik company is Anthe Jonas Valley in Thuringia. This valley was packed full of high-tech underground facilities which included nuclear research. Röhlicke confided to his daughter after the war, according to Mr. Rothkugel, that he "had seen the earth from above" (21).

Confusion over the test details of the Miethe-Belluzzo saucer start as early as the whole German flying disc controversy itself in the 1950s. In the English translation of his book, titled Brighter than a Thousand Suns A Personal History Of The Atomic Scientists. a footnote appeared which deviated from the discussion of atomic weaponry. This 1958 description is one of the first in English and may illustrate some of the difficulties in sorting out this information:

The only exception to the lack of interest shown by authority was constituted by the Air Ministry. The Air Force research workers were in a peculiar position. The produced interesting new types of aircraft such as the Delta (triangular) and "flying discs." The first of these "flying saucers," as they were later called -- circular in shape, with a diameter of some 45 yards--were built by the specialists Schriever, Habermohl and Miethe. They were first airborne on February 14, 1945, over Prague and reached in three minutes a height of nearly eight miles. They had a flying speed of 1250 m.p.h. which was doubled in subsequent tests. It is believed that after the war Habermohl fell into the hands of the Russians. Miethe developed at a later date similar "flying saucers" at A. V. Roe and Company for the United State. (22).

One big difference between the Miethe-Belluzzo design and the Schriever-Habermohl designs is that the former craft was alleged to have, or be designed to have, a longer flight range. This point is reinforced by the Spitzbergen flight mentioned above. Klein states that the Germans considered long range, remote controlled attack from Germany to New York using this craft. As stated earlier, both projects were under the same authority. Experts and advisors included, according to Epp, among others, head-designer Kalkert of the Gotha Waggonfabrik, head-designer Günther of Heinkel, engineer Wulf of Arado, engineer Otto Lange of the RLM, and engineer Alexander Lippish of Messerschmitt. Pilots were Holm, Irmler, Kaiser and Lange. The test pilot was Rudolf Schriever.

   Top picture is of a September 6, 1952 article in the Italian newspaper Tempo.
 This article deals with the work of Dr. Miethe and features a photograph of his saucer
allegedly dated April 17, 1944, taken over the Baltic.
Bottom is an enlargement of the photograph. It seems to be a Miethe-Belluzzo type 1 but could also be a type 3.
Courtesy of Klaus-Peter Rothkugel.

There exist two alleged still pictures of the Miethe craft in flight. One is reproduced here. It may be the first design. A picture claiming to be of what is called here the third design can be found in W. Mattern's book, UFOs Unbekanntes Flugobiekt? Letzte Geheimwaffe Des Dritten Reiches? (23). Efforts have been made to acquire the picture but the inquiry went unanswered by the book's publisher.

Politically, in 1944, Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, replaced Albert Speer's appointee, Georg Klein, with Dr. Hans Kammler as overseer of this combined saucer project (24). This is a little confusing, however, since Kammler retained Klein as his employee, Perhaps a more practical way to look at this is that Kammler, Himmler's employee, replaced Speer while Klein did what he always did. The result was that the SS took direct and absolute control over these projects from this point until the end of the war.

Prior to this happening, news of these designs or application itself was made to the German Patent Office. All German wartime patents were carried off as booty by the Allies. This amounted to truckloads of information. Fortunately, Rudolf Lusar, an engineer who worked in the German Patent Office during this time period, wrote a book in the 1950s listing and describing some oft he more interesting patents and processes based upon his memory of them (25). They are surprisingly detailed. Included is the Schriever saucer design with detail. Also discussed is the Miethe project.

The significance of these two teams can not be minimized in the history of flying saucers or UFOs. Already in this brief discussion, the evidence, taken as a whole, is overwhelming. Please compare this to any and all extraterrestrial explanations of flying saucers. Here we have Germans who claim to have invented the idea of the flying saucer. We have Germans who claim to have designed flying saucers. We have Germans who claim to have built flying saucers. We have Germans who claim to have flown flying saucers. We have Germans who claim to be witnesses to flying saucers known beforehand to be of German construction. We have German construction details. And finally, we have a man who took pictures of a known German flying saucer in flight. The facts speak for themselves. During the Second World War the Germans built devices we would all call today "flying saucers". No other UFO explanation can even approach this in terms of level of proof.


1. Klein, Georg, 10/16/54, page 5, "Die "Fliegenden Teller", Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich
2. Epp, J. Andreas, 1994, page 34
. Barton, Michael X., 1968, page 58, The German Saucer Story- Futura Press, 5949 Gregory Avenue, Los Angeles, CA. 90038
Lusar, Rudolf, 1964, page 220, Die deutschen Waffen und Geheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklunq J.F. Lehmanns Verlang, Munich
Epp, J. Andreas, 1994, pages 30-31
6. ibid
7. Epp, J. Andreas, 1994, pages 26-27
. Epp, J. Andreas, 1994, page 30
9. Klein, Georg, 10/16/54, page 5
10. Zwicky, Viktor, 9/18/54, page 4, "Das Rätsel der FliegendenTeller", Tages-Anzeiger für Stadt und Kanton Zürich
11. Klein, Georg, 10/16/54, page 5
12. Epp, J. Andreas, 1994, pages 30 and 31
13. Meier, Hans Justus, 1995, "Die Miethe-Flugscheibe-eine reichlich nebulöse Erfindung", Flieger-Kalender 1995, E.S.Mettler & Sohn, text editing: Hans M. Namislo, Celsius-Str.56, 53125 Bonn, Germany
14. Luftfahrt International, May-June, 1975, "Deutsche Flugkreisel Gab's die?"
15. J. Miranda and P. Mercado, 1998, Flugzeug Profile, page 25-27
16. Holberg, Jan, 8/20/54, "UFOs gibt es nichti Wohl aber: Flugscheiben am laufenden Band!", Das Neue Zeitalter
17. Barton, Michael X., 1968, pages 42, 63, 64
18. Vesco, Renato, 1974, from photos and diagrams begining on page 392, I Velivoli Del Mistero I segreti tecnici dei dischivolanti. U Mursia editore, Via Tadiuo 29, Milan, Italy
. Video film, "UFOs Das Dritte Reich Schlägt Zurück?", 1988, Tempelhof Gesellschaft, Wien, Available through Dr. Michael Damboeck Verlag, Markt 86, A-3321, Ardaggr, Austria
20. Rothkugel, Klaus-Peter, 2000, page 4, "Baute Peenemünde überschallschnelle Flugscheiben?", four page information sheet concerning supersonic and high altitude saucer construction at Peenemünde, Bad Nauheim, Germany
21. ibid
22. Jungk, Robert, 1958, page 87, Brighter than a Thousand Suns A Personal History Of The Atomic Scientists. Harcourt. Brace and Company, New York, translated by James Cleugh from Heller als tausend Sonnen. 1956, Alfred Scherz Verlag, Bern
23. Mattern, W., date unknown, page 34, UFOs Unbekanntes Flugobiekt? Letzte Geheimwaffe Des Dritten Reiches?, Samisdat Publishers LTD, 206 Carlton Street, Toronto, Canada M5A 2LI
24. Epp, J. Andreas, 1997. page 33
25. Lusar, Rudolf, 1960, (English version) German Secret Weapons of the Second World War. Neville Spearman Limited, 112 Whitfield St., London W.I, England

Nazi flying saucers being given a second look

After decades of derision and dismissal by the main stream media, the surviving documents and testimonies by eye-witnesses that a Nazi flying disc program did exist and actually met with some success is being revisited...

Nazi spaceship film sparks UFO debate
A new sci-fi film about Nazis has reignited a debate in Germany about Hitler's development of UFOs. 
By Allan Hall in Berlin 
The Telegraph
November 17,  2010

The Finnish sci-fi comedy 'Iron Sky' centres on real-life SS officer Hans Kammler who was said to have made a significant breakthrough in antigravity experiments towards the end of WW2.

The film relates how, from a secret base built in the Antarctic, the first Nazi spaceships were launched in late 1945 to found the military base Schwarze Sonne – Black Sun – on the dark side of the Moon.

This base was to to be used to build a powerful invasion fleet and return to take over the Earth once the time was right, in this case 2018.

But a new report out this week in Germany in the magazine PM purports that there is "strong evidence" that a Nazi UFO programme was well advanced.

Hitler ordered Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring to develop the super weapon that would change the war.

The PM report quotes eyewitnesses who believe they saw a flying saucer marked with the Iron Cross of the German military flying low over the Thames in 1944.

At the time the New York Times wrote about a "mysterious flying disc" with photos of the device seen travelling at extremely high speeds over the high-rise buildings.

The best known of the Nazi UFO projects was the Schriever-Habermohl scheme, named for Rudolf Schriever and Otto Habermohl.

Initially a Luftwaffe project, it fell under the auspices of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Hans Kammler.

Eyewitnesses captured by the Allies after WW2 claimed to have seen the saucer produced in Prague fly on several occasions in early 1945.

Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to the Schriever-Habermohl project, stated 15 prototypes were built in all.

He described how a central cockpit surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes formed a circle.

The vanes were held together by a band at the outer edge of the wheel-like device. The pitch of the vanes could be adjusted so that during take off more lift was generated by increasing their angle from a more horizontal setting.

In level flight the angle would be adjusted to a smaller angle, similar to the way helicopter rotors operate. The wing-vanes were to be set in rotation by small rockets placed around the rim like a pinwheel.

Once rotational speed was sufficient, lift-off was achieved.

After the craft had risen to some height the horizontal jets or rockets were ignited. "After this the wing-blades would be allowed to rotate freely as the saucer moved forward as in an auto-gyrocopter. In all probability, the wing-blades speed, and so their lifting value, could also be increased by directing the adjustable horizontal jets slightly upwards to engage the blades, thus spinning them faster at the digression of the pilot," he said.

Hitler's secret flying saucer: Did the Führer plan to attack London and New York in UFOs?
By Allan Hall
November 18, 2010 

As Hitler's armies began to crumble on fronts as far apart as Stalingrad and North Africa, he turned in increasing desperation to his scientists to create a war-winning super-weapon.

Some, like the V2 rockets and the first jet fighters, saw action but came too late to halt defeat.

Others were so outrageously ambitious that they never got past the drawing board. The idea of building flying saucers to bomb London and even New York could have been just such a scheme.

But now it is claimed that Hitler’s scientists had indeed designed this type of aircraft – and were so far advanced with the project that a prototype may even have flown.

The programme, under the command of SS officer Hans Kammler, was said to have made significant breakthroughs with their experiments, says a report in the German science magazine PM.

It quotes eyewitnesses who believe they saw a flying saucer marked with the Iron Cross of the German military flying low over the Thames in 1944.

'The Americans also treated the existence of the weapons seriously,’ it adds.

At the time the New York Times had written about a 'mysterious flying disc' and published photos of the device travelling at high speeds over the city’s high-rise buildings.

The magazine says that the Germans destroyed much of the paperwork on their activities but in 1960 in Canada UFO experts managed to recreate the device which, to their amazement, 'did actually fly'.

The project was called the Schriever-Habermohl scheme. Rudolf Schriever was an engineer and test pilot, Otto Habermohl an engineer. It was based in Prague between 1941 and 1943.

Initially a Luftwaffe plan after Hitler ordered his airforce chief Hermann Göring to come up with a super-weapon, it was eventually taken over in 1944 by Kammler.

Prisoners of the Allies claimed to have seen the silvery flying saucer, which was about six yards across, on several occasions.

Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer on the project, said 15 prototypes were built.

He described how a central cockpit was surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes which formed a circle and gave the craft lift.

After take-off, horizontal jets or rockets were ignited.

After the war, many German scientists helped with the U.S. space programme.

The theory is further fuelled by the claims of Igor Witkowski, a Polish former journalist and historian of military and aerospace technology.

In his book, 'Prawda O Wunderwaffe' in 2000, he claims that a bell-shaped craft was being created by the Nazis and that Hitler wanted the best scientists and engineers at his disposal.

Did Hitler’s ‘secret UFOs’ plan to attack London and New York?
November 18, 2010

It may sound unbelievable at first, but according to a new claim, Hitler's scientists built him a `flying saucer' which was to be used to attack New York and London.

The programme, under the command of SS officer Hans Kammler, was said to have made significant breakthroughs in anti-gravity experiments, says a report in the German science magazine PM, reports the Daily Mail.

The magazine quotes eyewitnesses, who believe they saw a flying saucer marked with the Iron Cross of the German military flying low over the Thames in 1944.

The best known of the Nazi flying saucer projects was the Schriever- Habermohl scheme, named after Rudolf Schriever and Otto Habermohl. Initially a Luftwaffe project, it fell under the auspices of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Hans Kammler. The project was centred in Prague between 1941-1943. The article said the Nazis had embarked on a flying saucer building programme to destroy London and New York with the long-distance flying saucers and thus change the course of the war. The report adds that the Americans treated the existence of the weapons seriously, thinking it could bomb New York, a target the Führer focused on as the war progressed and his armies began retreating on all fronts. Apparently the machine was capable on its very first maiden flight of travelling 2000km, the magazine claims. The Germans destroyed much of the paperwork of their activities but there are numerous hints it did exist, including an attempt in 1960 in Canada by UFO experts to recreate the device, which, to their amazement did actually fly.

Prisoners of the Allies claimed to have seen the silvery flying saucer, which was about six yards across, on several occasions.

Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer on the project, said 15 prototypes were built. He described how a central cockpit was surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes, which formed a circle and gave the craft lift.

After the war, many German scientists helped with the U. S. space programme. Added to that, claims of Igor Witkowski, a Polish former journalist and historian of military and aerospace technology, only add to the theory.

In his book, ''Prawda O Wunderwaffe'' in 2000, he claims that a bell-shaped craft was being created by the Nazis and that Hitler wanted the best scientists and engineers at his disposal. (ANI)

All of this does beg the question about the 1947 Roswell incident – and ‘Area 51’. German scientists were captured by the Allies and many disappeared. Did the USA secretly force the German scientists to build the Nazi flying saucer in the USA using the stolen technology to build their own version? If so, did it crash and was it a giant cover up? The dates are too coincidental…

Close encounters of the Third Reich
Hitler fantasised about creating a fleet of flying saucers capable of destroying London and New York as his armies retreated on all fronts. 

By Allan Hall, in Berlin
The Sun
April 27, 2011

New movie Iron Sky, due out next year, tells the story of Nazis escaping to the moon to regroup for a new attempt at world domination.

But after trawling through top secret Nazi archives, The Sun can reveal the truth about Hitler’s UFOs is far more chilling.

One alleged site of production of the Nazi UFOs is a series of tunnels buried under the Jonas Valley in Thuringia, central Germany.

Here, under the command of SS General Hans Kammler, legions of slave labourers worked to bring the Führer’s fantasies into existence.

The respected German science mag PM has reported how “advanced” the programme was as scientists toiled in secret factories to produce the “wonder weapon” to win the war.


  UFO over England - 1944

The magazine quotes eyewitnesses who saw a flying saucer marked with the German Iron Cross flying low over the Thames in 1944. “America also treated the existence of the weapons seriously,” it said.

The US believed Germany could use it to drop weapons on New York — a target the Führer obsessed on as the war progressed.

At the time the New York Times reported on a “mysterious flying disc” with photos of the device seen travelling at extremely high speeds over the city’s high-rise buildings.

“Apparently that machine was capable on its maiden flight of travelling 2,000km,” added the PM report. “The Germans had destroyed much of the paperwork of their activities but there are numerous hints that it did indeed exist.”

The Nazi UFO project was driven by engineers Rudolf Schriever and Otto Habermohl and was based in Prague between 1941 and 1943.

Initially a Luftwaffe project, it eventually fell under the control of armaments minister Albert Speer before being taken over once again in 1944 by Kammler.

Eyewitnesses captured by Allies after the war claimed to have seen the saucer fly on several occasions.

Josef Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to the Schriever-Habermohl project, claimed 15 prototypes were built.

He described how a central cockpit surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes formed a circle.

The vanes were held together by a band at the outer edge and were set in rotation by small rockets placed around the rim.

Once rotational speed was sufficient and lift-off was achieved, horizontal jets or rockets were ignited.

A German official recorded that at the Prague-Gbell aerodrome in September 1943, he saw inside a hangar “a disk 5-6 metres in diameter. Its body is relatively large at the centre.

"Underneath it has four tall, thin legs. Colour: aluminum. Height: almost as tall as a man. Thickness: some 30 to 40cm. Along with my friends, I saw the device emerge from the hangar.

"It was then we heard the roar of the engines, we saw the external side of the disk begin to rotate and the vehicle began moving slowly and in a straight line toward the southern end of the field.

"It then rose almost one meter into the air. After moving around some 300 meters at that altitude, it stopped again. Its landing was rather rough. Later, the ‘thing’ took off again, managing to reach the end of the aerodrome this time".

So impressive was Nazi technology found at the end of the war, V-2 rocket scientists were hunted down by the US and Soviets and hired for their own missile and space programmes.

More than 120 rocket scientists, including Wernher von Braun who became a central figure at NASA, went to the US.

British and American bomber crews also reported strange sightings over enemy territory.

They reported seeing objects that were neither aircraft nor ack-ack fire and described them as “fiery” and “glowing red, white, or orange”.

Were these the test flights of the disks meant to unleash terror on Allied cities? But if so where were they flying from?

Jonas Valley is where the secret work is believed to have been carried out. Now officially sealed off, authorities play a cat-and-mouse game with UFO hunters there each weekend.

Captured by the Americans, its secrets were placed under lock and key for 100 years.

Conspiracy theorists believe the Americans found two things in the tunnels — a nuclear bomb and the flying saucers meant to deliver it.

Martin Stade, author of a book on the area, claims 174 flying saucers were developed at the site. He continues to search the tunnels illegally but hasn’t yet found them.

He said: "Research in Third Reich archives points to a secret factory in the Jonas Valley complex. Why else would the Americans take away everything they found and place the results under a 100-year secrecy order?"

The Nazis had a base on the Moon

After World War II, rumors circulated that German astronauts had traveled to the moon and established a top-secret facility there. Some even speculated that Adolf Hitler faked his own death, fled the planet and lived out the rest of his days in an underground lunar hideout. Connections were also drawn between flying saucer sightings—including the famous incident near Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947—with the Nazis’ alleged UFO development program. These theories form the basis of the science fiction novel “Rocket Ship Galileo,” published by Robert A. Heinlein in 1947.

”Iron Sky” Is build around this conspiracy of a secret Nazi space program

Nazis on the Moon in 1945?

According to several websites whose writers failed miserably in their due diligence, the Romanian scientist ‘Radovan Tomovici’, who has studied conspiracy theories for decades, stated, For over 70 years, it has been common knowledge that the Nazis had a research program overseen by Hans Kammler during the war, with the goal of conquest and control of orbital space.” “It seems that Kammler, who mysteriously vanished [in Antarctica] shortly before the end of the war, and his team were successful. We’re in trouble now.

Unfortunately, the conspiracy theorists bloggers failed to realize that the fascinating tidbit was a piece of PR manufactured for the marketing build up of the film Iron Sky scheduled for an April 2012 release.

Nazi General Hans Kammler in charge of saucer program - Nazi flying saucers being given a second look

After decades of derision and dismissal by the main stream media, the surviving documents and testimonies by eye-witnesses that a Nazi flying disc program did exist and actually met with some success is being revisited.

The Daily Mail asks: “Hitler’s secret flying saucer: Did the Führer plan to attack London and New York in UFOs?” while rival newspaper The Sun claims the Nazi Reich made much more progress with advanced flying saucers than most military historians admitted: “Close encounters of the Third Reich.”

Fleeing to Neuschwabenland, Antarctica

Some contend that after the end of the war in May 1945, the Germans continued their space effort from their south polar colony of Neuschwabenland (New Swabia).

Sir Roy Fedden (an aeronautical engineer and Chief of the Technical Mission to Germany for the Ministry of Aircraft Production) stated that the only craft that could approach the capabilities attributed to the flying saucers seen around the world during the late 1940s and early 1950s were those being designed by the Germans towards the end of the war:

I have seen enough of their designs and production plans to realise that if they (the Germans) had managed to prolong the war some months longer, we would have been confronted with a set of entirely new and deadly developments in air warfare.

A mysterious structure near the Polish town of Nowa Ruba located by the foothills of the Owl Mountains may be a part of the Nazi flying saucer program.

Nick Cook states:

It would be a mistake to disregard the research in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s just because it was done in the Third Reich. This kind of suppression of facts would be unscientific and would be just as bad as the suppression of facts that happened during that era.

Nick Cook is an aeronautical expert and repected advisor to the worldwide leading journal Jane’s Defence Weekly. He’s also the editor of the air weapons section. His book, The Hunt for Zero Point, dealt with flying saucers, the Nazi disc program and the intense American and British quest for anti-gravity. His book was an international bestseller.

Nazi Moon enthusiasts argue that:

Many of the so-called UFO cases in the 1950s and 1960s—including the famous flyovers above Washington, D.C. during July of 1952—were actually warnings by the Nazi S. S. They flaunted their superiority over the Allies aeronautical prowess.

The Nazi S. S. continue to maintain a mammoth, underground city-factory complex far beneath the frozen wastelands of the Antarctic ice not far from U. S. and Norwegian bases.

Patrolling the Norwegian Fjords

The disciplined remnants of an elite Waffen S. S. corps and their appointed successors monitor the superpowers and continue an ingenious yet relentless campaign (begun in early 1947) of military, economic and political blackmail and extortion on a worldwide scale.

The diabolical Nazi S. S. established and expanded upon a network of lunar bases whose primary purpose is to exploit the ultimate military “high ground,” control and contain the superpowers, and mine the abundant minerals available there (including Helium-3 for nuclear fusion reactors) for light and heavy manufacturing purposes to support terrestrial and lunar operations.

Some contend this is why NASA killed the Apollo program and never returned to the moon. Many space probes have returned photos of what can only be described as mining operations and structures on the lunar surface. Are they operated by space aliens? Not likely argue the Nazi theorists. More likely the Nazi space corps runs the show.

The Nazi S. S. established secret maintenance bases in extreme northern Norway, under deep lakes located within northwest Canada, Central America, southern South America, and under targeted regions of the vast oceans and seas. These areas have been hotbeds of flying saucer reports and UFO activity for years, but strangely no activity was ever reported from these regions prior to 1945.

Staging area for advanced Nazi military flying saucer

When Admiral Richard E. Byrd’s United States naval task force confronted and engaged the Polar Waffen SS forces near the giant Nazi base of Neuschwabenland in the Antarctic in 1956 the Americans lost. The task force limped back with home months earlier than planned with almost one hundred men missing and scores more injured. One of the fleet’s ships was lost and Byrd was ordered by President Eisenhower never to talk to the news media about it the horrifying events that transpired on the southern ice pack.

The German navy’s “super submarines” disappeared at the fall of the Third Reich. They were never sunk or scuttled and none of the Allied forces captured them. They were last reported on a heading towards the South Pole.

Tons of Nazi gold disappeared at the end of the war. The Allies never found it, nor did anyone else. Today the horde has an estimated value of trillions of dollars. Did the so-called Nazi “Last Battalion” smuggle it out of Germany before the Allied Forces arrived? Did they use it to further capitalize their Antarctic base and satellite operations in Argentina and the mountainous fortresses they built that still are in operation today in Paraguay?

Are these theorists correct? The answers may be found on the far side of the Moon.


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